Mallein as aid to the diagnosis of glanders

Mallein as aid to the diagnosis of glanders

144 GENERAL ARTICLES. So much by way of summing up the points that are unfavourable to tuberculin. But on the other side it ought not to be forgotte...

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144

GENERAL ARTICLES.

So much by way of summing up the points that are unfavourable to tuberculin. But on the other side it ought not to be forgotten that out of the 5 r tuberculous animals included in the foregoing experiments probably not more than 3 or 4 could by the most searching clinical or bacteriological examination have been certainly recognised as affected with tuberculosis. Nothing has been said hitherto regarding any of the other effects of tuberculin besides the elevation of body temperature. Some of those who have reported regarding its use claim that both in respect of local reaction and general disturbance of the system after injection there is a marked difference between tuberculous and non-tuberculous animals. That opinion I am not able to corroborate. The general disturbance was seldom very noticeable in any of the animals, and the swelling at the seat of inoculation was also slight, and not markedly greater in the tuberculous individuals. In conclusion, I have no hesitation in saying that, taking full account of its imperfections, tuberculin is the most valuable means of diagnosis in tuberculosis that we possess. The discovery of tubercle bacilli is, of course, the only means of arriving at a positively certain diagnosis, but that means, for reasons already set forth, has an exceedingly restricted sphere of application in veterinary practice. Without tuberculin even the sharpest and most experienced practitioner is powerless to detect tuberculosis in its early stages; with it, he will find it possible to detect the majority of cases even when the lesions are very slight. It is probable that by using the tuberculin test twice, with an interval of some days between the injections, the proportion of errors in diagnosis would be very small.

MALLEIN AS AID TO THE

DIAGNO~IS

OF GLANDERS.

By JOHN PENBERTHY, F.R.C.V.S., Royal Veterinary College, London. WITH a view of widening the ground on which to base an opinion as to the value of mallein as a diagnostic agent, the following may be regarded worthy of publication. In the autumn of r892, through the kindness of Dr Roux of the Pasteur Institute, Paris, I was supplied with a quantity of mallein, which, in prospect of the immediate adoption of the compensation dauses of the recent Glanders Order, I found ample opportunity of using on horses regarded as suspicious of glanders. I, however, regret to say that owing to the rejection of these clauses by the Local Authorities I was unable to follow the cases to the end. The impression left on my mind as to the effect of these injections, as far as I was able to observe them, was that the results would have proved much as in the following, which have come under my notice in ordinary practice at the College Infirmary.

GENERAL ARTICLES.

CASE I.-Brown gelding. not suspected of glanders.

145

Admitted on account of " greasy heels," -------

ResjJ. Pulse. I TemP.

Hour.

Date.

---- ------

Remarks. -

-- ------- --

2Y.

---

p.m.

16

48

100'2

Received Paris.

4.30

a.m.

16

44

100'4

Swelling at seat of inoculation 6 in. x 3 in. and sore.

" "

9. 0

a.m.

12

S6

102'4

" " " "

12.0

noon

12

64

104'2

S·o p.m.

12

68

1042

16

60

103'0

Jan.

12

"

13

" "

100

12.0 midnight

21st Jan.-Slaughtered. of considerable age.

cc. of mallein from

Swelling less.

Swelling larger, more tense, and sore. Appetite good throughout.

Lungs contained many glander nodules

CASE H.-Bay mare. Admitted for hard lumps on skin; Submaxillary glands found to be swollen, and some corded lymphatics inside left thigh. -------------------

Hour. Remarks. Date. ! Resp.i Pulse. Temp. I ----1-----1--\----1------------Feb. I4

IS

12.10

p.m.

1

\

I

17

.

0

So

102'8

7. 0 a.m.

16

SI

102'S

"

11.0

a.m.

19

S3

103'0

"

1.0

p.m.

18

60

10S'1

"

4. 0

p.m.

16

S9

104'7

- ---

I

Received 2Y. cc. mallein from Royal Veterinary College Laboratory.

----------'--

18th Feb.~Slaughtered.

Septum nasi ulcerated.

Numerous glander lesions in lungs.

CASE IlL-Roan mare. Admitted on account of injury to foot; a discharge from both nostrils and swelling of limbs had been K

GENERAL ARTICLES.

noticed for some time prior to admission. temperature. ------

I have only a record of the

------

Hour.

Date.

Remllrks.

Temp.

----~.~

March

I

12.0

p.m.

102'0

"

2

6.0

a.m.

102'21

" "

"

9.0

a.m.

101'4 :

"

12.0

a.m.

101'8

"

"

3.0

p.m.

102·6

"

"

6.0

p.m.

102'8

!

I

Injected with 2Yz cc. mallein prepared in Royal Veterinary College Laboratory.

I 1

Local reaction very slight.

--------

---------~"

-~----

3rd lVIarclt.-The prospect of treatment not being regarded a:: favourable, the animal was slaughtered, and no evidence of glanders was discovered.

CASE IV.-Bay gelding. Admitted on account of extenS'ive subcutaneous swelling on side of chest behind elbow, several similar to which had previously appeared and yielded tardily to treatment. Regarded with some suspicion. --------

Date.

------------

Hour.

I Resp.

..

Pulse. Temp.i

'i

Remarks. -----

~-

IS

12.0

p.m.

12

16

6.0

a.m.

"

9.0

"

Mar.

I

I

40

100'0

13

46

99'8

a.m.

12

44

101'01

"

12.0

a.m.

12

48

101'8

"

"

3.0

p.m.

12

40

1O!'6

"

"

6'0

p.m.

q

42

IO!'2

" "

1

-

..

-

-----

Received 2 Yz cc. mallein prepared in Laboratory Royal Veterinary College.

I 1

I

!

Local reaction slight.

This animal remained in the hospital till 2nd May, and has since been in work, apparently free from glanders.

147

GENERAL ARTICLES.

CASE V.-Brown mare. Admitted on account of nasal discharge, and swollen submaxillary glands.

CASE VI.-Brown cart mare. Discharge from right nostril, slightly swollen submaxillary gland; sent to the hospital 3rd March by a practitioner as a favourable case for testing mallein. I

Resp. Pulse. ' Temp.

Date.

H Ollr.

Mar. 7

11.40 a.m.

24

36

100'4 1 Received 2}/, cc. mallein prepared in I Laboratory Royal Veterinary 1 College.

"

"

6.0 p.m.

14

38

100'6

"

" ,.

9. 0 p.m.

24

37

101'0

12.0 p.m.

"

8

3. 0 a.m.

"

"

6.0 a.m.

"

100'6 38

Remarks.

Very slight local reaction.

100'8 100'2

This animal remained in the hospital till 27th April; the swelling and discharge subsided, and no evidence of glanders has manifested itself.

GENERAL ARTICLES.

CASE VII.-Roan gelding. Admitted on account of a fcetid discharge from right nostril. Right submaxillary gland a little swollen, general condition very good.

I ~~:p.

Pulse. Temp. -- - -

Date.

Hour.

Mar. 7

12.0 a.m.

12

46

" " "

"

6.0 p.m.

12

48

"

9.0 p.m.

q

47

"

12.0 p.m.

"

8

3.0 a.m.

48

"

"

6.0 a.m.

46

100·0

I

R emarks. Received 2 Yz cc. mallein prepared in Laboratory Royal Veterinary College.

102 ·0 103.6

I

104·0

Diffuse swelling at seat of moculation.

104·2 I

103'2

Very painful. - ----

This animal was subsequently injected with mallein on three occasions. On the first of these the temperature rose to lOS o, on the next to 102°, on the last to 103°. He was slaughtered, and some old and some newer lesions of glanders were found in the lungs. CASE VIIL-Black gelding. Admitted on account of cough and generally swollen submaxillary space. I

Date.

I

Mar. 21

Hour. 12.0

p.m.

_Resp . \ Pulse. Temp. I -° 16

36

101 ·0

I

22

6.30 a.m.

18

46

101.2

" " "

9.30 a.m.

20

56

103"6

12.0 a.m.

17

64

104. 8

3.15 p.m.

20

72

10 5. 1

" "

" " "

"

6.30 p.m.

30

70

104'6

"

"

9.30 p.m.

36

66

103.4

I

1

!

R emarks. Recei ved 2Yz cc. mallein prepared in the Royal Veterinary College Laboratory.

.. . .. . Local swelling ma rked and increased for three days.

... ... ...

Slaughtered; old glanders lesions found in lungs. CASE IX.-Bay gelding. Admitted on account of enlarged gland near side, with discharge from off nostril. Temperature 103'4° on

149

GENERAL ARTICLES.

Friday 26th, which fell to 101'2 on 27th, when a slight enlargement of the glands on off side was noticed. 0

Date.

Holtr.

May 28

10.0 p.m.

Resp.1 Pulse. Temp.:

-~-~-- ~'4 i Received !

"

29

"

"

" " "

"

4.0 a.m. 7.0 a.m.

I I I

i

I

IOz·8· Rigors; not feeding; swelling 4

18 20

I03'0 !

La

p.m.

54

I

"

2.0 p.m.

" "

5.0 p.m.

"

zYz cc. mallein prepared in Royal Veterinary College Laboratory.

Swelling hard, hot, and painful.

IOI'2

17

I

I 10.0 a.m.

Remarks.

I05'2

x

Z

inches, and sharply defined.

Dull; swelling more diffused; not so well defined. Not feeding; swelling 6 x 5 inches; hot and painful.

I04'8' Not feeding. 54

I03'0! Not feeding; swelling losing its defined character.

Slaughtered and found to have numerous glanders lesions in lungs. In each of the foregoing some doubt had existed as to whether the animals suffered from glanders. To Nos. I., VIl., and VIII. no suspicion had attached. The injection of mallein was followed by the characteristic indication of glanders, and post-mortem examination proved this correct. Nos. 11., V., and IX. gave rise to some suspicion, but no reliable symptom. The course of conditions following injection of mallein was so true to the order indicated that suspicions were confirmed, and by autopsy proved correct. In Cases 111., IV., and VI. the circumstances were calculated to give rise to suspicions as strong as in the foregoing. Mallein appears to have indicated freedom from glanders. In the animal slaughtered this view is absolutely upheld by post-mortem examination, while the other two now alive are to all appearance free from glanders. Every human system seems to have some possible source of error, but the exception proves the rule. In my experience of the disease I have up to this met with no single procedure which has yielded such correct indications of glanders. Like every other means of diagnosis it will only be best used with the largest amount of common sense.

SOME JOINT DISEASES OF THE HORSE. By Vet.-Captain F. SMITH, F.R.C.V.S., F.I.C., Aldershot. (Continued from page IO.)

SPAVIN (continued). STRANGE as it may appear, I do not think it is a simple matter to define what a spavin really is. We cannot describe it as an exostosis affecting the hock and limited to a certain region, for though this definition