Management routine risk factors associated with handling and stabled-related behavior problems in UK leisure horses

Management routine risk factors associated with handling and stabled-related behavior problems in UK leisure horses

Abstracts own dogs (U 5 1,347, p , 0.001). No significant differences in attitudes to dogs were found between: the different countries, dog bite victi...

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Abstracts own dogs (U 5 1,347, p , 0.001). No significant differences in attitudes to dogs were found between: the different countries, dog bite victims and non-victims, boys and girls. Overall, children’s attitudes to dogs were positive. In addition, no correlation was found between children’s ability to interpret the behavior of dogs and their attitudes to dogs. These results suggest that it is possible to measure very young children’s attitudes to dogs and that attitudes are positive across the three European cities tested. It should therefore be possible to use a single dog bite prevention program for Italy, Spain and the UK, rather than having to modify it to suit different cultures. Key words: children; attitudes; dogs; dog bite prevention; cross-cultural

TRAINING ENGAGEMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN THE DOG: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY K.F. Thompson*, E.A. McBride E. Redhead Applied Animal Behaviour Unit, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK *Corresponding author: [email protected] Canine behavior problems have serious welfare implications for dog and owner. The first year of canine behavioral development is most critical as this is when most social and environmental learning occurs, learned behavior patterns become established and problem behaviors are most likely to become apparent (Lund et al. 1996). While experiences during the socialization period are of great importance, dogs may regress and become fearful if exposure to stimuli is not maintained (Dehasse, 1994; Fox, 1978) as both social and environmental learning continue throughout the juvenile period and adolescence. There is also evidence of a second phase of heightened sensitivity to fear arousing stimuli at the age of 6 months, around the onset of sexual maturity (Fox, 1972; Serpell and Jagoe, 1995), known as the ‘secondary sensitive’ or ‘secondary socialisation’ period. As with the onset of sexual maturity, the exact timing of this phase is variable between breeds and individuals. It may be that some dogs do not go through this ‘secondary sensitive period’ until later adolescence or that it lasts for a greater or lesser part of the adolescent period (Dehasse, 1994; McBride et al., 1995). The present longitudinal study investigates the relationship between behavior, early experience and management practices, including training engagement throughout the first year. 51 owners completed questionnaires at the time of first vaccination (A), 6 months (B), 9 months (C) and 12 months (D) of age. Behavior was assessed using the Canine Behavior and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ) (Hsu and

57 Serpell, 2003), and responses produced scores on 6 subscales which had been validated by the current authors for this age group (,1 year). Results showed that dogs attending ‘puppy socialisation/ training classes’ or ‘puppy parties/socialisation groups’ prior to 6 months of age had significantly lower total problem behavior scores than dogs attending other training formats or receiving no training. Dogs attending ‘young dogs classes’ between 6 and 9 months of age also showed a significant reduction in total problem behavior. Six C-BARQ subscales were used: attachment/attention seeking (AAS); non-social fear (NSF); dog-directed aggression or fear (DDAF); owner directed aggression (ODA); stranger-directed fear (SDF) and separation-related problems (SRP). Analysis revealed differential effects for both the type of training engaged in, and the training methods used. In summary, results indicate that professional training is beneficial in reducing the incidence of problems behavior and is most effective when engaged in prior to 6 months of age. Furthermore, class formats providing a combination of obedience training, troubleshooting advice and intraspecific socialization are most effective in producing well balanced dogs. Key words: dog; behavior; problem; training; puppy

References Dehasse, J., 1994. Sensory, emotional and social development of the young dog. Bull. Vet. Clin. Ethol. 6–29. Fox, M.W., 1972. Understanding Your Dog. New York: McCann and Geoghegan. Fox, M.W., 1978. The Dog: Its Domestication and Behaviour. New York: Garland STPM Press. Hsu, Y., Serpell, J.A., 2003. Development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring behaviour and temperament traits in pet dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 9, 1293–1300. Lund, J.D., Agger, J.F., Vestergaard, K.S., 1996. Reported behaviour problems in pet dogs in Denmark: Age, distribution and influence of breed and gender. Prev. Vet. Med. 28, 33–48. McBride, E.A., Bradshaw, J.W.S., Christians, A., McPherson, Bailey, G.P., 1995. Factors predisposing dogs to separation problems. Proceedings of the 29th international congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology 1995, 103. Serpell, J.A., Jagoe, J.A., 1995. Chapter 6: Early experience and the development of behaviour. In: Serpell, J.A. (Ed.), The Domestic Dog – its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–138.

MANAGEMENT ROUTINE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HANDLING AND STABLED-RELATED BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN UK LEISURE HORSES J. Hockenhull1,*, E. Creighton2 1 Anthrozoology Unit, Chester Centre for Stress Research, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK 2 School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK

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Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Vol 5, No 1, January/February 2010

*Corresponding author: [email protected] Domestic horses can exhibit a range of unwanted and abnormal behaviors, ranging from biting to stereotypies. The demographic of horse owners is changing towards new and increasingly urbanised leisure owners who may lack the experience to cope with behavioral problems and may have restricted access to land and facilities; both representing potential welfare concerns. A large-scale Internet survey was used to quantify the type and prevalence of handling and stable-related behavior problems within the UK leisure horse population, and to identify associated management routine risk factors. Data were collected for 1230 horses with 82% of these expressing one or more, primarily low frequency, behavior problems. Principal components analysis extracted five distinct components, indicating that the behavior problems were not displayed randomly. These were: handling issues (57% of horses), frustration behavior (52%), abnormal oral/ ingestive behavior (48%), aggressive behavior (33%), and locomotor stereotypies (22%). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore associations between each of these behavior components and management routine. Time spent stabled was associated with an increased risk of handling, oral/ingestive and aggressive problems. Features of the turn-out group were risk factors for all behavior problem components except aggressive behavior, with an established turn-out group containing 7-9 other horses associated with the least problems. Frustration behavior had the largest number of associated risk factors and these primarily represented an increased risk when full social contact was thwarted in the field and stable. Handling and stable-related behavior problems are highly prevalent within UK leisure horses, albeit at low frequencies. Time at grass and the opportunity to form proper social relationships are key risk factors, with traditional stabling practices at odds with these. The increasing urbanisation of leisure horses must be addressed by management practices, such as group housing, that permit full social relationships when turn-out is limited. Key words: horse; management; equine behavior problems

TEMPERAMENT ASSESSMENT ON GUIDE DOGS USING QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY AND BEHAVIOR TESTS S. Arata1, Y. Momozawa2, Y. Takeuchi1,*, Y. Mori1 1 Laboratory of Veterinary Ethology, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan 2 Unit of Animal Genomics, GIGA-Research and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lie`ge, GIGA Tower (B34), 1 avenue de l’Hoˆpital, 4000, Lie`ge, Belgium *Corresponding author: [email protected] Guide dogs for the blind are required to have appropriate temperament in addition to their working performance and health condition. Considering the high cost of raising guide

dogs with low success rate, an objective method for temperament assessment which enables early prediction of the guide dog qualification is desired. In this study, we conducted temperament assessments during the training term in order to identify and assess important traits for being a guide dog. We employed a questionnaire survey of primary trainers on their assessment of dog’s temperament at the third month of training. Behavior tests with heart rate (HR) monitoring were also conducted at the first and the second month, and it included kennel period and presentation of an excitatory stimulus. Two groups of Labrador Retrievers, group A (n 5 78) and B (n 5 66), were further categorized into the success group, which finally became guide dogs, and the failure group, which were disqualified due to temperament problems. Factor analysis of questionnaire items resulted in consistent extraction of three factors, among which ‘‘Distraction’’ and ‘‘Docility’’ were significantly associated with the success/failure outcome in both groups (P , 0.01), while ‘‘Sensitivity’’ showed significant association only in one group (group A: P 5 0.0121; group B: P 5 0.29). Then, the mean HR, the duration of posture (lie down / stand / move) during the kennel period, and delta HR by stimulus were compared with three factors. At the second month, the mean HR tended to positively correlate with ‘‘Distraction’’ in both groups (P , 0.1). The duration of ‘lie down’ was significantly correlated with ‘‘Distraction’’ and ‘‘Docility’’, and the duration of ‘stand’ was negatively correlated with ‘‘Docility’’ in both groups (P , 0.05). Regarding the response to the excitatory stimulus, delta HR after 10 seconds from stimulus presentation was significantly correlated with ‘‘Docility’’ (P , 0.05). In conclusion, as important traits for guide dog qualification we have identified three temperament factors ‘‘Distraction’’, ‘‘Sensitivity’’ and ‘‘Docility’’, which can be assessed objectively based on measurement of HR and behavioral response at the second month of training. Key words: behavior; guide dogs for the blind; heart rate; questionnaire

CAN STANDARDIZED BEHAVIOR TESTS PREDICT SUITABILITY FOR USE IN HORSES? Rachel Flentje1,*, Emma Creighton2 1 Anthrozoology Unit, Chester Centre for Stress Research, University of Chester, UK 2 School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, UK *Corresponding author: [email protected] Standardized behavior tests have the potential to improve horse welfare by enabling selection of horses suitable for a particular role. A range of tests that make such claims are found in the scientific literature. However, with notable exceptions, authors have failed to establish the reliability of their tests or the validity of their claims. This study aimed to determine a set of reliable behavior tests based on those