Membrane-electrode unit for fuel cells

Membrane-electrode unit for fuel cells

adapted Patents onto System for refining of sugar obtained from module and passed module. contains an enhanced carbon dioxide, The gas is...

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adapted

Patents

onto

System for refining of sugar

obtained

from

module

and passed

module.

contains

an enhanced

carbon

dioxide,

The gas is then directed

in the range

which

raw sugar is exposed

cause

carbonation,

patent

20%

by

into a reactor in

to carbon

essential

the carbon

dioxide

step

to

in the

dioxide

carbonation

how -

dioxide

can be generated

manner,

membrane

carbon

because

the

has no moving

little maintenance. can

be retrofitted

refining

plants to improve

This

-

for

in a highly and

At a relatively

system

is

gas-separation

parts

is formed

of

which

the

first

solution

of the filter

small cost, the sugar-

their efficiency.

Patent number: WO 00171758 Inventor: S.R. Brahmbhatt 2000

unit

installation. type

for guiding

adhesive

layer which

adhesive

outer

edge

enter

into

is applied

of the

which

protrude

bond,

groups

unit,

because

of the

unit,

comprises

which

groups

of the polymer

ensure

a high

hot-melt-type

over the

in the projecting

adhesive

degree

interact

ionic or strong

of adherence

adhesive

and

as well

area. The

with

electrolyte the

the

ionic

Publication he:

7 December

of this

membrane,

patent

thickness

of the

network

with vacant of 0.05-2

propionate,

tive hollow-fibre anical

and

is

The

0

solution

electro-winning

cell includes

pores pm,

of and

acetate

or more

of

cellulose

deriva-

has high

mech-

less

susceptible

rate

and condenses

of

of liquid over

(the

a porous

flows via the pores

of the

on a cool condenser

per

unit

driving

in the gas gap

atmospheric

pressure

pressure

of the feed stream. membrane

surface

2000

surface

the retentate

exchange

is 1.2-6

of the

times the

membrane;

vapour

heat of the distillate

the

than the vapour

than 0.7; the surface

area of the porous

between

S. Matsuoka

pressure than

The porosity

is higher

local

the

is lower

but higher

area of the condenser

to

force,

maintained

porous

and the

pressure

difference

stream and the perceptible stream

is released

to the feed stream and/or

by heat-

the retentate

stream.

Multiple-channel filtration

Patent number: WO 00172947

Applicant: Nate International,

Inventor: J.H. Haanemaaijer

This

patent

includes

describes

an

outer

elongated

inner

multiple

filtration

inner

casings

disposed

USA

a filtration casing

casings

system

housing

which,

Publication date: 7 December

that

in turn,

Propene recovery

house

membranes.

The outer

and

and the filtration

membranes

are

relative

to one another

three-flow

channel

inner

casing.

fluid

flow path

a

A process

is described

which

from

at one or more membrane

products

using a number

involves

separating

that within

arrangement

in which

the same

defines

a feed-fluid

filter into a downstream

by additional

a feed-

the

exiting

saturated

filter

gaseous

gaseous

Oil dehydrator

propene

in a fluid

catalytic

the

fraction

and a hydrocarbon-rich of

a membrane

hydrocarbon-rich

gaseous

A method

and apparatus

of free,

the

is supplied

emulsified

or dissolved

water from liquids of low

section,

step

from which

process, and a

fraction.

It also gaseous

gaseous fraction separation.

USA

second

other

fraction

a hydrogen-rich

Applkant: Porous Media Corporation, for the removal

and

hydrogen-containing

fraction

means

into

it

comprising

cracking

gaseous

separating

cracking

hydrocarbons,

liquid

gaseous by

catalytic

of steps. Essentially,

unsaturated

a hydrocarbon-rich

involves

2000

is used to separate

a feed mixture,

hydrogen-containing

J. Jensen

fluid

products, and

obtained into

feed-fluid.

Research, The

Netherlands propene

membranes

This

to provide

Applicant: Shell Intemationale

provides

system

2000

multiple

(USA)

a reservoir

membrane

stream

is passed

Vapour

by

a number

or

Patent number: WO 00172949

to nanofiltration.

stream)

purification

comprises

vaporising

Inventors: S. Nakatsuka,

Publication date: 7 December

is subject

liquid

distillation

Patent number: WO 00172950

between

in which

of

method

effective

couplings

for electro-winning

The Netherlands

This

membrane.

biodegradation.

Inventors: D. Chancellor,

an ionic

The

membrane

strength

the

is provided,

2000

of the

or cellulose

for 70 wt%

material.

from an upstream

and method

of

or by the

J.H. Burban,

Applicant: TNO,

j retentate

with a

surfaces

diameter

accounting

is diluted

metal from ionic solutions

pressure

of vacuum,

M. Zia

steps. A warm

pm. Either

outer

structure

pore

acetate

and

between

Electra-winning cell

the presence

Patent number: WO 00172948

membrane

is a hollow-fibre

of 50-500

inner

feed-fluid

2000

The permeate-

at a low partial

1 surface to give a distillate stream. The condenser I surface separates a feed stream from the distillate membrane consists of a minute membrane i stream. The feed stream runs counter-current surface with an average pore diameter of : with the retentate stream, and a gas gap is 0.001-0.05 pm. An internal portion of the : present between the porous membrane and the membrane comprises a three-dimensional I condenser surface. To improve the distillate flow membrane

both

Inventors: M. Bronold,

An apparatus

2000

made of a cellulose derivative,

additional

H. Colell, C. Leu

is fed, and a permeate-side

a

liquid purification by membrane distillation

Applicant: Daicel Chemical Industries, Japan subject

divides into which

the

Cellulose derivative hollow-fibre membrane

Patent number: WO 00/74 160

Applicant/Inventor: J. Jangbarwala

is

with

Patent number: WO 00173539

to

membrane-

of liquid

Inventors: M.R. Spearman,

solution.

membrane,

unit.

Publication date: 7 December

second

The retentate

to intermix

Publication hte: 7 December

and heat, with the rigid plates

as with one another

a

the stream

use of a sweep gas.

on

The membrane

from which the water is removed. water through

the

has

into a feed-side

the

from

permeate

membrane. chamber

side is maintained

on both

membrane-electrode

an intimate

hot-melt-type

or for

by a hot-melt-

and with the membrane-electrode

electrode

cells on its

by at least one rigid plate.

layers,

effect of pressure

polar

fuel

material

The frame is formed

sides and is formed The

for

situated

of the membrane-electrode

and provided

through

permeable

Publication date: 7 December

cellulose

and in the area of a series of openings

in the active portion

as a second portion

the

separation

in first portion.

the membrane

periphery,

of

region

to the reservoir

butyrate,

unit

of the

The liquid

by contacting

with one side of a semi-

concentration returned

Germany frame

portion

of concern

M. Thundyil,

Applicant: Heliocentris Energiesysteme GmbH,

a reinforcing

cathode.

is removed

of metal ions lower than the first

porous

membrane-electrode

fluid

to a second

The

an average

This

fluid stream

in

side of the membrane

region.

Membrane-electrode unit for fuel cells

comprises

is

the membrane

passes

as oil, is described.

concentration

The

requires

to existing

Publication date: 30 November

the filter. Permeate

such

with low volatility

the

as a first

volatility,

and receives

near

passes through

During

electroplate

is also used

steam which drives the reaction.

shows

efficient

of about

of

the reservoir

is formed which

membrane

of raw sugar. The boiler which

used to produce to produce

an

with

a location

from

solution.

nanofilter

communication

the opposite

concentration

A

solution

through of the

an ionic

ions in solution

cathode.

Flue gas

The output

volume.

decolorisation

multiple

membranes.

is scrubbed,

the gas-separation

dioxide

containing

polymeric

a boiler

a

solution

uses carbon

a module

gas-permeable from

process

metal

Retentate

Applicant: Messer Griesheim, Germany This sugar refining

to receive

operation,

fraction

is obtained

The

obtained

to an

in

absorber

a fraction,

rich

Membrane Technology No. 133