Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kohima City, Nagaland, India

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kohima City, Nagaland, India

2909 A Glance at the World / Waste Management 29 (2009) 2907–2910 Final remarks The existing solid waste management system in Port-au-Prince is affe...

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2909

A Glance at the World / Waste Management 29 (2009) 2907–2910

Final remarks The existing solid waste management system in Port-au-Prince is affected by unfavourable economic, institutional, legislative, technical and operational constraints. The use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate, in addition to odours and fires. Lack of data on generation rates and solid waste composition combined with lack of public awareness constitute a major challenge for SW management in Port-au-Prince. On the basis of the results obtained, it appears vital in the future to improve several aspects of the SW management system in Port-au- Prince. The enforcement of waste management legislation and an effective policy and planning framework for waste management are required. Efforts have been made by decisionmakers to increase public awareness of solid waste management issues. The side-effects of improper waste disposal have been well publicised. Wastes dumped along roads, underneath bridges, in culverts and in drainage channels need to be cleared. Co-operation between communi-

ties, the informal sector, the official waste collectors and the authorities is necessary if recycling rates are to increase. The collection system must be designed to accommodate the specific conditions of the community. References Bras, A., Emmanuel, E., Obicson, L., Brasseur, P., Pape, J.W., Raccurt, C.P., 2007. Évaluation du risque biologique dus à Cryptosporidium sp présent dans l’eau de boisson à Port-au-Prince (Ha). Environnement, Risques and Santé 6 (5), 356– 364. Layder, D., 1993. New Strategies in Social Research: An Introduction and Guide. Polity Press, Blakwell Publishers, Cambridge, UK.

A. Bras a,b, C. Berdiera, E. Emmanuelb, M. Zimmermana a Lyon University, INSA-Lyon, France b Quisqueya University, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Available online 25 August 2009

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kohima City, Nagaland, India The present note presents an overview of current solid waste management (SWM) practices in Kohima, Nagaland, India and suggests solutions to some of the major problems encountered. In order to obtain a clear picture of the current situation in the town a study has been carried out by field visits, data collection, interviews held with individuals directly or indirectly involved with the project and discussions undertaken with relevant Kohima Town Committee (KTC) officials. Waste generation and quality The Greater Kohima Planning Area (GKPA) is spread over an area of 63.36 sq. km, which includes Kohima Municipal Council (KMC) area and rest of Kohima Planning Area. The total population of the city is 1,032,836 citizens. Among those, 90% of the population is predominantly tribal. In the town of Kohima, the daily generation of wastes is 54 MT. These wastes are generated mainly from the major sources, such as residential (57%), commercial (19%), and institutional (15.50%), industrial (3%), biomedical wastes (0.50%) and construction & demolition (5%). Physical and chemical analysis of municipal solid waste in Kohima was performed on samples collected from five locations, three from the city and two from disposal sites shown in Tables 1 and 2. In the composition of MSW, large amounts of biodegradable wastes are present. Almost 64% is composed of biodegradable waste. In the chemical analysis of MSW in Kohima, it has been observed that the moisture content is very high compared to other materials. Municipal solid wastes are also composed of papers, plastics, glasses, metals, inorganic matters, etc. The composition of MSW varies from place to place, on the basis of factors, such as population, source, average income, social behaviour, industrial production and market for waste materials. Segregation, collection and transport In Kohima, the responsibility of waste management lies with the Kohima Municipal Council (KMC). Different types of wastes 0956-053X/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.07.016

Table 1 Results of physical analysis of solid waste. Parameters

Different locations Para Agri T-Khel Disposal Disposal medical colony market site-I site-II ward

Biodegradable organic 62.8 fraction (%) Paper and cardboard (%) 7.9 Plastics (%) 8.2 Metals (%) 3.8 Glass or ceramics (%) 4.1 Bio-resistant (cloths, leather, 1.5 napkin) (%) Inerts (stone, brick, earthen 2.0 wares) (%) Fine earth (ash, dust, soil) (%) 3.9 Others (wooden substances, 5.8 rubber, bone, coal) (%)

73.6

77.0

69.8

69.3

6.2 4.3 2.6 1.8 1.9

6.1 4.9 2.1 3.9 1.2

8.6 4.9 2.3 2.9 1.2

9.2 3.8 4.9 3.2 1.0

1.6

1.3

2.3

3.1

3.9 6.1

1.6 2.1

2.8 5.2

2.2 4.3

Table 2 Results of chemical analysis of solid waste. Parameters

Moisture (%) Volatile solids (%) Ash (%) Carbon in (%) Nitrogen (%) Sulphur (%) Phosphorous (%) Potassium as K2O (%) Calorific value (Kcal/kg) Oxygen (%) Hydrogen (%)

Different locations Para medical ward

Agri colony

T-Khel market

Disposal site-I

Disposal site-II

64.70 62 28 7.44 1.624 0.009 0.015 0.288 1070 13.2 4.02

79.8 70 20 8.36 1.421 0.010 0.015 0.324 1008 13.0 3.83

86.3 76 14 3.14 1.519 0.010 0.016 0.348 990 15.1 3.91

34 15 65 2.21 1.071 0.005 0.013 0.456 1080 16.0 2.30

56.7 21 59 2.40 1.204 0.007 0.015 0.492 1050 16.2 2.54

2910

A Glance at the World / Waste Management 29 (2009) 2907–2910

such as plastics, scrap metal and bottles, i.e. all recyclable wastes, are generally segregated and either sold to rag pickers at household level or scavenged at community bins or disposal sites. In the collection of municipal waste in Kohima city, main sources are dustbins and community bins. Two types of community bins (large and small) are used for a total of approximately 1200 collection bins. Specified capacity colour bins are used to collect segregated biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste at source. Eight different types of vehicles are used for the transportation of wastes. The average waste-carrying capacity of vehicles is around 2.5–4.48 m3. On an average 20 MT per day of wastes are transported. Spillage occurs during the transportation of wastes, as vehicles are not covered or properly sealed. Manual or hydraulic loading and unloading may be performed. Wastes are cleared daily with the majority of vehicles carrying out two trips and a few carrying out only one trip. Treatment and final disposal The total area of the disposal site is about 56.53 acres located to the southeast of the city. All municipal wastes are dumped on a sloping site about 8 km from the city. Wastes are generally dumped in open streams or burnt in empty spaces. The Siste Ru river flows just below the disposal site and, as a result, the majority of dumped wastes accumulate in the river. Huge amounts of biomass, suited for use in soil nourishment to increase fertility, are lost through the burning of wastes. Frequency rates for irregular disposal are high. Almost 49% of the population is served by an unofficial service, whereas only 31% by the official service. Wastes are collected on a weekly/biweekly basis and in regular/irregular manner. Processing or recycling procedures are not currently applied in Kohima. The only recycling performed is carried out to some extent by rag pickers exposed to harsh, unprotected conditions. Final remarks and recommendations The growing problems related to municipal solid waste in Kohima are largely related to the composition and characteristics of waste. Accordingly, an appropriate management of solid waste may imply a considerable reduction in collection and disposal problems. Data pertaining to municipal solid waste management in Kohima are scarce, although the impact produced on the environment is considerable. To this aim therefore, the cooperation of the entire population in achieving a more efficient management of municipal solid waste throughout the entire city. An inexhaustible and readily available supply of organic matter, constituting a major health and environmental hazard, is generated. The waste features high moisture content and level of organic substances, frequently being perceived as repulsive and of scarce utility. However, organic wastes represent a largely underestimated resource that, if used appropriately, may contribute towards reducing the volume of waste to be disposed. The existing collection and transportation system implicates procedures of multi-handling and manual handling, both of which characterised by low productivity and posing a potential threat to

human health and the environment. The frequency of waste collection should be developed in a systematic manner. The crude dumping of waste, burning of waste in open spaces at disposal site, disposal of wastes in streams or drains and maximum leachate generation undeniably indicate the presence of a marked environmental concern. The waste management system currently applied in Kohima city involves no reclamation or resource recovery and is grossly inadequate. Moreover, no serious efforts have been made to implement the systematic recycling of municipal solid wastes, thereby resulting in a detrimental scenario for the entire city. The findings obtained clearly underline the need for an effective, pragmatic solution in addressing municipal solid waste problems in Kohima city. To strive for a situation of zero waste would be scarcely practical in the context involved, although wastes should certainly be managed in an increasingly effective manner. To this regard, public awareness, political involvement and public participation will prove to be essential for the successful implementation and integrated approach towards sustainable management of municipal solid wastes. The following recommendations may serve as a policy tool for decision makers, planners and all those involved in the management of municipal solid wastes: – Disposal of wastes in the streets, open spaces, in vacant areas or into drains should be banned. – Levy of administrative charges for littering of streets. – Source segregation of wastes. – Primary collection of wastes, i.e. door-to-door collection of wastes should be implemented. – Waste collection should be performed on a regular basis, i.e. daily collection. – Street sweepers should be equipped with individual containerized wheelbarrows, metal plate and tray, long handled broom and protective gear. – Mechanized containers should be used to enhance storage capacity. – Litter bins should be provided at public places, such as—bus stands, taxi stands, market places. – Abolition of open waste storage sites and manual collection. – Upgrading of existing dumpsites or disposal sites. – Open burning of biomedical wastes should be prohibited. – Scientific incineration facility should be available inside or outside the premises. – The safe and environmentally friendly process of aerobic composting requires less land space and should be applied in management of municipal solid waste. – Sitting, construction and operation of sanitary landfills should be done systematically. – Capacity building programme should be established. – Public awareness strategies should be taken into consideration. Rajeshwari Chatterjee FE 121 Salt Lake, Sector 3 Kolkata 700106, West Bengal, India E-mail address: [email protected] Available online 27 August 2009