Annals of Nuclear Eneroy. Vol. 8, pp. 201 to 202 1981
Printed in Great Britain
NEW PUBLICATIONS Manpower Development for Nuclear Power: A Guidebook, IAEA, Vienna, 1980. STI/DOC/IO/200; ISBN 92~-155080-4 Qualified manpower is essential for the safety and reliability of nuclear power. Any country embarking on a nuclear power programme has the primary responsibility for planning and implementing its manpower development programme, which must begin at the earliest stages of a nuclear power programme because of the long lead-times involved in developing highly qualified manpower. Governmental support is required for consistent, longrange policies on nuclear power and manpower development, and decisions on their planning and implementation must be taken at the governmental level. National participation in a nuclear power programme is fundamentally a national effort. Further, whatever the contracting arrangements, there are certain activities, considered to be essential, for which full responsibility has to be borne by national organizations and which have to be performed primarily by qualified local manpower. Therefore, before undertaking a nuclear power programme, a country must be prepared and able to develop its manpower, education/ training and industrial infrastructures in order to attain the capability to perform these essential activities. This Guidebook thus provides policy-makers and managers of nuclear power programmes with information and guidance on the role, requirements, planning and implementation of manpower development programmes. It presents and discusses the manpower requirements associated with the activities of a nuclear power programme, the technical qualifications of this manpower and the manpower development corresponding to these requirements and qualifications. The Guidebook also discusses the purpose and conditions of national participation in the activi: ties of a nuclear power programme. The International Atomic Agency was fortunate to receive the generous support of several Member States in providing experts for producing the Guidebook. For their valuable contributions, appreciation is expressed to them and in particular to the Members of the Advisory Group which provided recommendations, information and comments to the Agency on the purpose, content and form of the book.
Fast Reactor Physics 1979, IAEA, Vienna, 1980. STI/ PUB/529; ISBN 92~-050180-X The growth in energy consumption beyond the year 2000 which is needed for the continuing economic and social development of mankind cannot be provided completely from traditional energy resources--the fossil organic fuels--because of their scarcity. Of the proposals for alternative sources of energy which could appreciably extend the presently available fuel resources, nuclear power based on the fission of heavy nuclei is by far the most important and is already a practical reality. However, the supply of uranium at economic prices is limited and the fullest utiliz-
ation of the potential of this energy source can be achieved only by the use of fast breeder reactors. With fuel cycles based on thermal reactors plus fast breeders, as opposed to thermal reactors alone, the quantity of energy released from a given amount of natural uranium is 50 to 100 times greater. Extensive development work has been done in many countries during the past quarter of a century and largescale development programmes on LMFBRs are now being carried out in Belgium, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the USSR and the U.S.A. Today there are a number of important experimental sodium-cooled fast reactors in operation: Rapsodie in France, KNK-II in the Federal Republic of Germany, JOYO in Japan, EBR-II in the U.S.A., BOR-60 in the USSR. Operating experience is being gained with the first prototype power stations incorporating fast breeders, namely BN-350 in the USSR, Ph6nix in France, and PFR in the United Kingdom. All countries with fast reactor programmes foresee that the present series of prototype reactors will be followed by a full-scale demonstration power reactor as the forerunner of a series of large power plants with electrical outputs in the range of 1000-1800 MW. Thus it is seen that the conceptual design of large power reactor cores is under development in many countries. The design work is being supported by experiments taking place at zero power fast test facilities such as BFS (U.S.S.R.), FCA (Japan), MASURCA (France), ZEBRA (U.K.), ZPPR (U.S.A.) and SNEAK (FRG), and at experimental and operational prototype fast reactors. The main emphasis is placed on homogeneous, mixed-oxide-fuelled cores. However, considerable effort is being directed to determining the extent to which heterogeneous large cores can improve safety-related characteristics and breeding ratio, and a number of promising concepts are under development. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained in fast reactor physics since the last international symposium on the Physics of Fast Reactors held in Tokyo in 1973, and to promote the full utilization of this experience in the design, construction and operation of new power stations incorporating fast breeder reactors. More than 190 participants from 19 countries and two international organizations attended the symposium and 60 papers were presented. This large attendance indicates the importance currently given to the subject. In publishing these Proceedings, which include a record of the discussions, the I A E A and NEA wish to thank the authors, session chairmen and participants for their contributions to the success of the meeting. They also wish to express their appreciation to Messrs H. Kuesters (FRG), J. C. Mougniot (France), K. Tomabechi (Japan), C. G. Campbell and J. E. Sanders (U.K.) and Yu. A. Kazanskij (U.S.S.R.) for their valuable assistance in setting up the final programme. Gratitude is expressed to the French Atomic Energy Commission and the Government of France for their excellent arrangements and for the assistance provided by their staff in the organization of the symposium.
A Model to Calculate Exposure from Radioactive Discharges into the Coastal Waters of Northern Europe, NRPB-R109, by M. J. CLARK,P. D. GR1MWOOD and W. C. CAMPLIN. HMSO, £3.00 A regional marine model is described which can be used to estimate the exposure of populations as a result of the discharge of radioactive effluents into the coastal waters of Northern Europe. The model simulates the dispersion of radionuclides in marine waters, their interaction with marine sediments and the concentration mechanisms occurring in seafoods. There is a local-regional interface defined in the modelling approach whereby releases are assumed to
first enter a local marine c o m p a r t m e n t prior to widespread dispersion in coastal waters. Depletion mechanisms operate within both the local and regional environments influencing the fraction of radionuclide release which contributes to collective exposure. General results of the regional marine model are presented in a form which can be combined with independent local marine models; collective intakes per unit release of various radionuclides into coastal waters are given for a series of integration times. For caesium-137 and plutonium-239 collective effective dose equivalent commitments have been calculated using a defined local marine model. Some general conclusions have been drawn from the results and there is some discussion of the various features of the modelling approach.