New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
New BIOTECHNOLOGY journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nbt
Full length Article
Nonionic detergent micelle aggregates: An economical alternative to protein A chromatography Gunasekaran Dhandapani a, Ellen Wachtel b, Mordechai Sheves b, Guy Patchornik a, * a b
Department of Chemical Sciences, Ariel University, 70400, Ariel, Israel Faculty of Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
Keywords: Antibody purification Protein A Separation Micelles
We have recently described a non-chromatographic, ligand-free approach for antibody (Ab) purification based on specially designed [Tween-20:bathophenanthroline:Fe2+] aggregates. To assess the potential generality of this approach, a variety of detergents belonging to four nonionic detergent families (Tween, Brij, Triton and Pluronic) have now been studied. All surfactant aggregates led to high purity of the recovered Ab’s (>95 %, by gel densitometry). Good overall Ab recovery yields were observed with Tween-20 (80–83 %), Brij-O20 (85–87 %) and Triton X-100 (87− 90 %), while Pluronic F-127 was less efficient (42–53 %). Of additional importance is the finding that the process was performed by filtration rather than centrifugation, thereby allowing a continuous purification mode that led to the recovery of monomeric IgG, as determined by dynamic light scattering and preservation of Ab specificity as measured by ELISA. The amphiphilic chelator, bathophenanthroline (batho) was recycled almost quantitatively (95 %) by crystallization. Good IgG recovery yields of ~80 % were also observed when Ab concentrations were increased from 1 mg/mL to 3− 5 mg/mL. Potential advantages of the purification platform for industrial downstream processing of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, are discussed.
Introduction Antibodies (Ab’s) are routinely used as detection and quantitation agents in life sciences research and as vehicles for delivering radioiso topes, drugs and enzymes to cells of interest in medicine [1,2]. It is the inherent high specificity combined with the strong binding affinity to wards diverse antigens (proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotides and hap tens) that explains why personalized medicine relies to a great extent on monoclonal antibodies (mAb’s) , many of which find their use in cancer therapy [4,5]. The striking success of mAb’s as efficient thera peutic agents resulted in 61 FDA- approved mAb’s by 2017  and ~ 570 mAb’s are currently in advanced clinical trials . The increasing global demand for diverse mAb’s places pressure on pharmaceutical companies to improve the expression levels of mAb’s (upstream pro cessing) and their purification (downstream processing). Antibody purification is most commonly achieved via
chromatography using Protein A (ProA) as the ligand of choice for capturing Ab’s. ProA binds strongly  and specifically  to diverse Ab subclasses , making it possible to capture efficiently Ab’s from complex media and to reach high purity (>98 %) within a single chro matographic step . These features have thus made ProA chroma tography the gold standard technology in Ab purification . However, the necessity to purify kilogram quantities  of therapeutic mAb’s has led pharmaceutical companies to search for a more economical route to meet the above challenge. Thus, an ideal purifica tion technology would rely on a non-chromatographic step capable of efficiently and selectively capturing Ab’s. This challenging objective has been termed the: "ABC philosophy", i.e., Anything But Chromatography [12,14]. We sought to take this philosophy an additional step forward by entirely excluding ProA from the process. Development of a non-chromatographic, ligand-free Ab purification platform has the potential of overcoming major problems related to
Abbreviations: ABC, anything but chromatography; Ab, antibody; Batho, bathophenanthroline; BSA, bovine serum albumin; mAb, monoclonal antibody; CHO, Chinese hamster ovary; DDW, double distilled water; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; hIgG, human IgG; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; HSA, human serum albumin; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; FPLC, fast protein liquid chromatography; HIC, hydrophobic interaction chromatography; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; MS, mass spectrometry; PEG, Polyethylene glycol; PVDF, poly (vinylidene fluoride); ProA, Protein A; TMB, 3,3’,5,5’-Tetramethylbenzidine. * Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected]
(G. Patchornik). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2020.11.013 Received 27 May 2020; Received in revised form 23 November 2020; Accepted 28 November 2020 Available online 3 December 2020 1871-6784/© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
ProA chromatography. These include: (i) the high cost of ProA resins and the potential leaching of ProA (or its fragments) into the purified Ab ; (ii) the limited binding capacities of ProA columns which may pose a problem at high Ab concentrations ; (iii) deamidation of ProA asparagines during column sanitation , leading to lower binding efficiency; and (iv) the high maintenance costs associated with the use of HPLC\FPLC instrumentation. Efforts have been directed towards replacing ProA chromatography with a non-chromatographic approach. These included: (a) diverse precipitation methods ; (b) extraction systems [18,19]; and (c) ul trafiltration with charged membranes , but none of these are widely used. Recently, we described an alternative Ab purification platform that complies with such challenging criteria [21,22]. The approach relied on literature reports describing purification of mAb’s via hydro phobic interaction chromatography (HIC) [23–25] or hydrophobic membrane interaction chromatography . Those studies demon strated the tendency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to bind more strongly to non-polar surfaces than do non-IgG water-soluble proteins. This greater binding affinity of IgG to hydrophobic resins was exploited by demon strating that Tween-20 detergent micellar aggregates could be used for purification of human, mouse, rabbit and sheep IgG [21,22]. Tween-20 aggregates were formed in two-steps: first, the amphiphilic chelator, bathophenanthroline (batho), was added to a dispersion of Tween-20 micelles and transformed the latter into what we have termed ‘engi neered-micelles’ [27–29], in which the chelator is presumably posi tioned at the micelle/water interface. This was followed by specific conjugation of engineered-micelles with Fe2+ ions (known to bind with high affinity up to three batho molecules in parallel [14,30]) leading to Tween-20 aggregates as a distinct amphiphilic phase. The latter were shown to efficiently capture IgG from serum-free hybridoma media or from E. coli lysate, and allow extraction of pure target IgG without concomitant extraction of impurities or aggregate dissolution [21,22]. In the present report, the generality of this non-chromatographic, ligand-free approach is demonstrated, as well as providing evidence which would further justify efforts at up-scaling. Achieving these chal lenging objectives is expected to form the basis for considering inte gration of this purification platform into standard downstream processing of therapeutic grade mAb’s on an industrial scale.
0.062 mM Tween-60, 0.062 mM Tween-80, 0.1 mM Brij C-10, 0.09 mM Brij O20, 0.05 mM Brij S-100, 0.1 mM Triton X-100 and 0.5 mg/mL Pluronic F-127 all in DDW with vigorous vortexing to a final volume of 200 μL. An equal volume of medium B, containing 1 mM FeSO4 in 20 mM NaCl was then added to medium A with vigorous vortexing. Purification of hIgG and mouse IgG with detergent aggregates Freshly prepared aggregates were resuspended in 100 μL of serumfree medium (Ex-CELL 610-HSF) containing 4% PEG-6000, the target IgG (1 mg/mL) and BSA (0.25 mg/mL). After 5 min incubation at room temperature (RT), the mixture was centrifuged (21,000 xg, 2 min, using Eppendorf Microfuge 5424-R), the supernatant discarded, and pellets were briefly washed with 100 μL of cold 20 mM NaCl. An additional centrifugation step followed (21,000 xg, 2 min. Eppe ndorf Microfuge 5424-R), the supernatant was removed, and pellets were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) Purified antibodies were mixed with sample buffer containing 2-mer captoethanol in a 1:2 vol ratio respectively and boiled for 5 min at 100 ◦ C. Aliquots (20 μL) were loaded onto a 10 % bis-Tris SDS-polyacrylamide gel (1 mm thickness) for 90 min at constant 100 V according to Laemmli . All gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250. Extraction of IgG’s from detergent aggregates Detergent aggregates containing the target IgG were incubated with 100 μL of 50 mM Gly, 30 mM NaCl at pH 3.8 for 5 min at RT. Centrifu gation followed (RCF 2 min.) and the supernatant was removed for further analysis by pipetting or filtered using PVDF filters with a pore size of 0.1 μm (Millipore ADDRESS - Ultrafree ® MC- VV). The use of extraction buffers comprising single amino acids other than Gly (at pH 3.8) did not lead to purer or higher yields (not shown). Therefore, all experiments were conducted with Gly buffer, a frequently used medium for eluting IgG’s from Protein A columns, but certainly not the only one.
Materials and methods
Dynamic light scattering (DLS)
The following were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, Missouri, USA). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, E6758), Bovine serum albumin (BSA) (A7906), Anti-bovine serum albumin (B1520), Protein A HP SpinTrap (28903132), Iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate (F7002), Sodium chlo ride (S7653), Polysorbate 20 (Tween-20) (44112), Polysorbate 40 (Tween-40) (P1504), Polysorbate 60 (Tween-60) (P1629), Polysorbate 80 (Tween-80) (P1754), Brij C-10 (388858), Brij O-20 (436240), Brij S100 (466387), Triton X-100 (laboratory grade), Pluronic F-127 (P2443), and Ex-CELL 610-HSF medium (14610C). Other materials were glycine (Bio-lab 07132391, Jerusalem, Israel), bathophenanthroline (GFS chemicals, C038446, Columbus, Ohio, USA), Streptavidin-HRP conju gate (R&D Systems, 4800-30-06, Minneapolis, USA), 3,3’,5,5’-tetrame thylbenzidine (TMB) solution (eBioscience, 00-4201, San Diego, California, USA), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 10X (Bio-Lab, Israel, 00162323), human IgG (Lee-Biosolutions, 340-21, Maryland Heights, Missouri, USA), mouse IgG (Equitech, SLM66, Ulvenhout, The Netherlands), and molecular weight markers (Supermarker 2700, Bio Lab, Israel).
IgG (0.5–1.0 mg/mL), treated and untreated, was solubilized in 50 mM glycine, 30 mM NaCl at pH 3.8. Samples were centrifuged at 15,800 x g for 20 min and the supernatant collected for analysis at pH 3.8 or at pH 7.4. The intensity-weighted size distributions of human and mouse IgG samples were determined using the auto correlation spec troscopy protocol of the Nanophox instrument (Sympatec GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Nunc-Immuno microwell plates (F96 Maxisorp) were coated with 2 % BSA (200 μL per well), incubated overnight at 4 ◦ C and excess of BSA was removed with three aliquots of PBS (200 μL). Purified rabbit antiBSA IgG, i.e., IgG captured by either Tween-20, Brij-O20 or Triton X100 aggregates in the Ab’sence of BSA and extracted with Gly buffer (see the Extraction section of IgG’s from detergent aggregates), was then added to the washed wells. Accordingly, 100 μL of purified and diluted (1:1000) (40− 80 μg per mL) anti-BSA IgG were added to the BSA coated wells, incubated for 2 h at RT and unbound IgG removed with PBS (3 × 200 μL). A diluted (1:15,000; concentration not specified by manufacturer, R&D systems) anti-rabbit IgG-HRP (horseradish peroxi dase) conjugate (R&D Systems, 4800-30-06, Minneapolis, USA), was introduced into wells and further incubated for 1 h at RT. Excess HRP conjugate was removed with PBS (3 × 200 μL). Addition of the HRP
Preparation of detergent aggregates Detergent aggregates were obtained by mixing equal volumes of medium A and B as follows: medium A was prepared by the addition of 20 μL of the hydrophobic chelator bathophenanthroline (20 mM in methanol) to 180 μL of: 0.25 mM Tween-20, 0.215 mM Tween-40, 91
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
substrate (1 X TMB solution) was followed by 10 min incubation at RT and the reaction was stopped upon addition of 2 N H2SO4 (50 μL). Color intensity was measured at 450 nm using an ELISA reader (Tecan infinite M200, Mannedorf, Switzerland).
Chelator recycling Batho regeneration was achieved via three sequential steps. Step I: Removal of Tween-20. Red Tween-20 aggregates, from which hIgG was extracted, were resuspended in 200 μL of 0.25 M NaCl, vortexed for 1 min, followed by centrifugation (15,800 x g, 2 min). The supernatant
Fig. 1. A. Illustration of Ab (IgG) purification using conjugated micellar aggregates. Target IgG + BSA are captured by micellar aggregates composed of a non-ionic detergent, amphiphilic chelator (e.g. bathophenanthroline, (batho)) and Fe2+ ions. Pure IgG is obtained by extracting IgG bound to the micellar aggregates under conditions that do not co-extract BSA or dissociate the detergent aggregates. B. Chemical structure of the non-ionic detergents. The sum of the values represented by the letters: W, X, Y, Z in the Tween-family is ~ 20. The number of carbons comprising the hydrophobic anchor of: Tween-20, 40, 60 and 80, are indicated, respectively. 92
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
was discarded, and the process was repeated twice. Step II: Dissociation of the red [(batho)3:Fe2+] complex. The resulting red crystals were resuspended in 800 μL MeOH\DDW (1:4 ratio) containing 0.25 M EDTA (pH 7) and heated for 3 min at 80 ◦ C. The suspension red color gradually decreased, and the solution became colorless and transparent. Step III: Crystal growth. The colorless transparent medium was left to cool to room temperature (20− 30 min) and further to 4 ◦ C (20− 30 min).
at 30 V or 70 V in positive or negative mode.
Liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC/MS)
Red or colorless crystals were thoroughly washed with DDW and dissolved in MeOH. LC/MS was performed with the Agilent quadruple LC/MS 6120 series equip ped with Reprosil saphir 100, C18, 50 × 2 mm, HPLC column (Dr. Maisch, Ammerbuch, Germany) The eluent solvent was 100 % CH3CN, UV detection was at 254 nm, column temperature was 50 ◦ C and flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The MS fragmentor was tuned
Bands present in Coomassie stained gels were quantified using the EZQuant program http://www.ezquant.com/en/.
UV spectroscopy Ab’sorption measurements of the red [(batho)3:Fe2+] complex (λmax =530 nm), dissolved in MeOH, were performed using the HP 8453 UV–vis spectrophotometer (Agilent Technologies).
Light microscopy Images were obtained using an Olympus CX-40 light microscope
Fig. 2. A. SDS-PAGE analysis of captured IgG’s in pellets containing non-ionic detergents. A. Pellet composition: Lane 1: Control: total hIgG and BSA; Lanes 2-5: Pellet composition after hIgG capture in the presence of the Tween representatives; Lanes 6-8: as in lanes 2-5 but in the presence of Brij representatives; Lane 9 and 10 as in lanes 2-5 but in the presence of Triton X-100 and Pluronic F-127, respectively. B. As in A, but with mouse IgG. BSA, H, L, A denote bovine serum albumin, the reduced heavy chain, the reduced light chain and the detergent aggregates, respectively. C-D. Supernatant composition after extracting IgG from indicated [detergent:(batho)3:Fe2+] pellets with 50 mM glycine at pH 3.8 as described in Methods. Indicated overall process yields (i.e. IgG capture and extraction) are shown and represent an average of 3 independent experiments. Gels are Coomassie Blue stained. Dimeric bands of the light chain, that appear in gels B and D, may derive from a mixture of light chain proteins. 93
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
equipped with an Olympus U-TV1X-2 digital camera (Olympus, Penn sylvania, USA).
Tween (355–685 nm), Brij (635–683 nm), Triton X-100 (913 nm) (Fig. 3, A–D). Thus, the larger size of Pluronic F-127 aggregates apparently did not compensate for the block copolymer core/shell micelle structure.
Results and discussion Surfactant structure influences recovery yield of IgG
A simplified illustration of the strategy presented here is shown in Fig. 1A. An impure IgG medium was added to preformed detergent ag gregates and filtration applied to exclude any unbound impurities or IgG. Filtration was further used to free the detergent aggregates from residual impurities and to extract the pure IgG without concomitant aggregate dissolution or impurity coextraction. In an attempt to reveal any significant relationship between IgG purity/yield and surfactant structure, several different non-ionic surfactant families were studied (Fig. 1B) i.e., Tween, Brij, Triton and Pluronic (triblock-copolymer) detergents. While a hydrophobic anchor in the form of a hydrocarbon chain of varying length is present in Tween, Brij and Triton surfactants it is not present in the same form in Pluronic F-127 triblock copolymer surfactants. Rather the polypropylene central block forms the micellar core, while the polyethylene oxide blocks form, the hydrophilic shell (Fig. 1B). The number of ethylene glycol moieties per detergent monomer did not affect the purity of recovered IgG (Fig. 2, C–D, lanes 2–10), but did influence overall yield. The most efficient detergents in each family, from the point of view of overall yield, were found to be: Tween-20 (hIgG-75 %, mouse IgG-74 %); Brij-O20 (hIgG-69 %, mouse IgG-70 %); Brij-100 (hIgG-73 %, mouse IgG-70 %) and Triton X-100 (hIgG-72 %, mouse IgG-69 %); Pluronic F-127 was the least efficient (hIgG-42 %, mouse IgG-53 %) (Fig. 2, C–D). This trend was also observed when analyzing pellet composition immediately following the IgG capturing step, though the presence of PEG-6000 in the system led to diffused migration of the heavy and light chains that made accurate quantification unreliable (Fig. 2, A–B, lanes 2–10). Here, Tween-20 with the shortest alkyl tail (12 carbons) pro duced higher overall yields in comparison with other Tween family members with longer alkyl tails (16–18 carbons) (Fig. 2, C–D, lanes 2–5). Moreover, results from the Brij family clearly indicated that overall yields increase with increasing number of oxyethylene units. Accord ingly, Brij-10 with ~10 oxyethylene units was less efficient than BrijO20 or Brij-100 containing ~20 or ~100 oxyethylene units, respec tively (Fig. 2, C–D, lanes 6–8). It seems therefore that, process efficiency is determined by several parameters that include both the length of the detergent hydrocarbon tail and the number of oxyethylene groups. Repetition of the purification process with an E. coli lysate (molar ratio of IgG and lysate proteins was ~ 1:5 by UV spectroscopy at 280 nm) led to similar findings with both human and mouse IgG’s in combination with Tween-20, Brij-O20 or Triton X-100 micelle aggre gates (Supplementary, Fig. S1, A–B, lanes 4–6). E. coli proteins were clearly observed in the flow-through at the IgG capturing step (Sup plementary material, Fig. S1, A–B, lanes 7–9) and the purity of recovered antibodies was similar to that of identical, control antibodies (hIgG or mouse IgG) that were not subjected to the detergent aggregates (Sup plementary, Fig. S1, A–B, lane 2). The conclusion that the purity of recovered antibodies was similar to that of control antibodies relies on the degree of purity observed by SDS-PAGE on the same gel. This can be observed when comparing lanes 4–6 in Figs. S1 A and B, to lane 2 in both A and B.
In order to be considered for industrial-scale, continuous production flows of therapeutic mAb’s , IgG capture and extraction from the aggregates would preferably be accomplished via filtration rather than centrifugation. Therefore, centrifugation steps were replaced by filtra tion at three critical stages in the IgG purification protocol involving Tween-20, Brij-O20 and Triton X-100 surfactants (Fig. 4): (i) aggregate incubation with the IgG/BSA mixture in serum free hybridoma media; (ii) removing residual unbound IgG and/or BSA from the aggregates via 20 mM cold NaCl wash; (iii) recovery of IgG with extraction buffer (50 mM Gly in 30 mM NaCl at pH 3.8) for 5 min at RT. The results clearly indicated that filtration can indeed replace centrifugation. The purity of recovered hIgG (Fig. 4A, lanes 3–8) did not differ from that obtained with centrifugation (Fig. 2, C–D lanes 2, 7, 9) while the overall yields improved and reached values ranging between 80–90 % after two consecutive extraction steps (Fig. 4, A). Of the three detergents tested, Triton X-100 repeatedly was superior to Tween-20 and Brij-O20 (Fig. 4, A). Thus, pure antibody preparations can be conveniently and efficiently obtained via filtration using detergent ag gregates belonging to three surfactant families. This finding emphasizes the wide scope of working conditions that can be employed with our purification platform. Since pharmaceutical use of therapeutic mAb’s requires them to be monomeric , recovered hIgG obtained with the filtration protocol was analyzed by DLS. The results indicated that, the hIgG so purified was indeed monomeric, as no significant difference in particle size was observed when compared to the control pure hIgG which was not sub jected to the surfactant aggregate protocol (Fig. 4B). Particle sizes were in agreement with previous findings  and ranged between 10.4–11.0 nm regardless of the detergent used (i.e. Tween-20, Brij-O20, Triton X-100) and the medium pH (pH 3.8 or pH 7.4). Very similar findings were observed with recovered human and mouse Ab’s at pH7.4 (Supplementary, Fig. S2, A–B). Ab specificity Although IgG purity, overall recovery yields and monomeric state are factors of paramount importance in the development of new Ab purification methodologies, preservation of Ab specificity must also be validated. This issue was investigated for a specific Ab (an anti-BSA IgG) using the detergent aggregate platform and the filtration protocol. AntiBSA IgG was first purified with either Tween-20, Brij-O20 or Triton X100 aggregates in the Ab’sence of BSA. Recovered IgG was then analyzed in an ELISA assay to assess its ability to bind BSA adsorbed in ELISA wells. Positive signals in the ELISA assay were repeatedly observed with all three detergent aggregates (Fig. 4C) and reflected recovery yields similar to those obtained with human or mouse IgG using identical detergent aggregates (Fig. 4A). ELISA wells without adsorbed BSA served as the control. The fact that Tween-20, Brij-O20 and Triton X-100 repeatedly demonstrated their utility with polyclonal human and mouse IgG sug gests that human or mouse IgG’s exhibit unique secondary/ternary/ quaternary architectures that are responsible for the higher binding af finity to the detergent aggregates compared to other water-soluble proteins. This is an important finding since it implies that a single nonionic detergent may provide a purification platform for many different antibodies, regardless of their biological origins. Such a capa bility is ideal for industrial downstream processing of therapeutic grade mAb’s.
Influence of aggregate size An additional parameter that may influence total yield is aggregate size. We recently reported that aggregates with size ranging between 100− 200 nm did not capture IgG efficiently.  It was therefore sur prising to find that DLS characterized Pluronic F-127 aggregates as having the largest size (1312 nm) of all the detergents studied: i.e., 94
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
Fig. 3. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) of detergent aggregates. Hydrodynamic particle size of detergent aggregates containing the non-ionic detergents and the [(batho)3:Fe2+]-complex. The data represent an average of at least 5 independent measurements performed on different days.
Increasing IgG concentration
aromatic stacking. Tween-20 was the surfactant of choice for this recycling experiment. Initial removal of Tween-20 from the aggregates was essential for optimal batho recycling, as the presence of any detergent would likely improve batho water-solubility and hence suppress its crystallization in aqueous media. However, Tween-20 was found to be soluble even in 1 M NaCl (data not shown). Therefore, Tween-20 aggregates that were used for IgG capture and extraction were thoroughly washed with 0.25 M NaCl to remove the detergent as well as the IgG that might not have been extracted from the aggregates. Under these conditions, the extremely hydrophobic [(batho)3:Fe2+] red complex is water-insoluble (Fig. 5, Step I). The pellet size decreased after NaCl washing and the resulting, excluded aqueous solution was colorless, indicating no significant loss of the [(batho)3:Fe2+] red complex (data not shown). Light microscopy analysis of washed aggregates showed that they were composed of numerous red crystals (~30− 70 μm) (Fig. 6A) containing the [(batho)3: Fe2+] red complex as determined by mass spectrometry (MS) (Supple mentary Fig. S3). In order to dissociate the red complex, crystals were briefly (2− 3 min.) heated at 95 ◦ C in DDW/MeOH (1:1 vol/vol) con taining 10 mM EDTA. Upon cooling, the red color was no longer observed, being replaced by a colorless, transparent solution (not shown). Thus, the loss of the red color served as a convenient internal indi cator for monitoring the rate and efficiency at which the [(batho)3:Fe2+] red complex disintegrated in the presence of the competing EDTA chelator. The presence of 50 % MeOH in the aqueous medium is essential as it led to the complete dissolution of the red crystals and thus
The fact that mAb production in CHO cells has improved signifi cantly and currently can reach Ab titers greater than 1 mg/mL  led us to test the filtration protocol at IgG concentrations up to 5 mg/mL (Table 1). As before, focus was on the three detergents that led to the highest recovery yields via the centrifugation protocol. The results pre sented in Table 1 indicate that process efficiency at 3 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL decreased by 5–10 % compared to that obtained at 1 mg/mL. Clearly, working at higher IgG concentrations requires a larger number of aggregated micelles. Indeed, good overall yields (~80 %), necessi tated an increase by a factor of 1.6 and 2.3 (wt/vol) for 3 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL hIgG, respectively. These results are encouraging as they are obtained at current industrial IgG expression levels . Chelator recycling Recycling of raw material represents an important environmental and economic concern for large-scale pharmaceutical production. Therefore, the possibility was studied of regenerating the most expen sive component in the platform, the chelator (batho). Chelator recycling via crystallization appears to be both economical and realistic due to the inherent physiochemical properties of batho, which include waterinsolubility , stability under both acidic  and basic conditions, thermostability and the ability to crystallize rapidly in aqueous media due to its relatively rigid and extended aromatic system, which is capable of forming π-π interactions and thereby, intermolecular 95
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
Fig. 4. Purification of IgG’s via filtration. A. Characterization of detergent aggregates for purifying hIgG under conditions described in the Methods section, where centrifugation is replaced by filtration. BSA, H, L denote bovine serum albumin, the reduced heavy chain, the reduced light chain, respectively. The asterisks represent overall yields based on 4-6 independent experiments. SDS-PAGE gels are Coomassie Blue stained. B. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of hIgG purified via filtration with detergents as indicated. Control - hIgG particle size (10.95 nm), not subject to detergent aggregate purification. C. ELISA analysis. Anti-BSA IgG was captured and extracted from indicated detergent aggregates and tested for its ability to recognize BSA via an ELISA assay described in the Methods. IgG concentration was the same in all cases. Although a titration would make the point stronger, we did repeat the assay multiple times. Indicated percent values represent IgG recovery yields relative to equal amounts of IgG not exposed to detergent aggregates (control). Filters used were made of PVDF with a pore size of 0.1 μm (Millipore - Ultrafree ® MC- VV).
C–D) identical to, or perhaps even purer than commercial batho crystals prior to use (Supplementary Fig. S4, A, B) (Fig. 6C). This implies that no chemical modifications occurred during chelator regeneration. To further rule out possible chemical modifications of the chelator during the recycling procedure, regenerated batho crystals were dissolved in MeOH and Fe2+ ions were added to generate the [(batho)3:Fe2+] red complex. The characteristic Ab’sorbance of the latter (λmax =530 nm) was compared to the Ab’sorption spectrum of a freshly prepared [(batho)3:Fe2+] red complex generated from the commercial (unused) chelator and no marked differences were observed (not shown). This finding provided additional supporting evidence for the preservation of the chelating ability of recycled crystalline batho. The characteristic Ab’sorption of the complex at 530 nm served as a means of quantitating chelator regeneration efficiency which was found to be, on average, 95 % when tested in 10 independent experiments (not shown). It should be emphasized that this value represents the recycling yield relative to the total amount of batho present initially in the system. These findings agree with the physiochemical properties of batho described above and show that near quantitative recycling can be achieved.
Table 1 Recovery yields with detergent aggregates as a function of hIgG concentration. 1 mg\ mL hIgG 3 mg\ mL* hIgG 5 mg\ mL* hIgG
79− 83 % 74− 78 % 70− 76 %
84− 87 % 80− 85 % 78− 83 %
87− 90 % 82− 87 % 76− 79 %
* FeSO4 was replaced in the purification protocol by FeCl2 at the same con centration, and 10 mM NaCl was increased to 200 mM NaCl.
physical access of EDTA to the chelated iron ions in the complex. In order to completely remove MeOH, which suppresses batho crystalli zation, the solution was heated to 95 ◦ C for 30 min and the resulting precipitate was thoroughly washed with DDW to remove EDTA, the [EDTA-Fe2+] colorless complex and free Fe2+ ions if present (Fig. 5, Step IV). Analysis of the precipitate by light microscopy showed that it con tained colorless, plate-like crystals (Fig. 6B) while LC–MS analysis confirmed that the crystals were >98 % batho (Supplementary Fig. S4, 96
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
Fig. 6. Light microscopy images of crystals obtained at steps as indicated in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Chelator recycling. Batho recycling via recrystallization. Yield repre sents an average of 5 independent experiments.
complex appear to represent an efficient and economical platform for IgG purification. The possibility of integrating this platform into in dustrial, continuous production flows is supported by the findings that: (i) filtration can replace centrifugation and lead to highly pure, recov ered Ab’s (>95 %) with improved overall recovery yields (79–90 %); (ii) process efficiency is not significantly reduced at higher IgG concentra tions (e.g. 3− 5 mg/mL); and (iii) chelator recycling is almost quantita tive (95 %). (iv) The process is rapid: on average, only 15− 20 min are needed to capture the target IgG and recover it in near pure form via the filtration protocol. This should translate into significant time saving and hence, higher manufacturing productivity. We wish to emphasize that the purification strategy presented in this report focuses on intact IgG rather than on antibody fragments (e.g. Fc, Fab, scFv). Clearly, identi fication of the antibody domain that binds preferentially to the detergent aggregates might pave the way towards the development of a robust purification process capable of separating the Fc fragment from the F (ab)2 domain, for example. This question, as well as the IgG isotypes to which the approach applies, needs to be investigated. Thus, determining the range of applications and economic value of the IgG purification platform for downstream processing of therapeutic grade intact mAb’s will require additional experimental efforts and process upscaling.
Clearly, consideration of the studied purification approach for in dustrial downstream processing of mAb’s, requires its demonstration at greater volumes. As a first step towards such a goal, performance of the approach was tested at a 50-fold higher volume (i.e. 5 mL rather than 0.1 mL). The observation that similar purity and yield were obtained was encouraging (Supplementary Fig. S5). While this is still far from a realistic industrial scale (1000–25,000 L), it might reflect the robustness of the purification platform. However, scaling-up the recycling step would require replacing methanol with a more environmentally friendly organic solvent or with another additive capable of solubilizing the [(batho)3:Fe2+] red com plex. As long as this problem is not addressed, it would represent a major drawback of the technology. Nevertheless, the unique stability of batho over a broad temperature and pH range, as well as its strong tendency to crystallize rapidly and essentially quantitatively in water, is expected to result in a cost-effective recycling process. Conclusions Detergent aggregates composed of conjugated Tween-20, Brij-O20 or Triton X-100 nonionic micelles and the amphiphilic [(batho)3:Fe2+] red 97
G. Dhandapani et al.
New BIOTECHNOLOGY 61 (2021) 90–98
 McDonald P, Victa C, Carter-Franklin JN, Fahrner R. Selective antibody precipitation using polyelectrolytes: a novel approach to the purification of monoclonal antibodies. Biotechnol Bioeng 2009;102(4):1141–51. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/bit.22127.  Azevedo AM, Rosa Paula AJ, Ferreira IF, Aires-Barros MR. Chromatography-free recovery of biopharmaceuticals through aqueous two-phase processing. Trends Biotechnol 2009;27(4):240–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2009.01.004.  Mao LN, Rogers JK, Westoby M, Conley L, Pieracci J. Downstream antibody purification using aqueous two-phase extraction. Biotechnol Prog 2010;26(6): 1662–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.477.  Reis VR, Zydney LA. Bioprocess membrane technology. J Memb Sci 2007;297 (1–2):16–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2007.02.045.  Dhandapani G, Howard A, Truong VT, Baiju TV, Kesselman E, et al. A general platform for antibody purification utilizing engineered-micelles. MAb’s 2019;11 (3):583–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2019.1565749.  Dhandapani G, Nair DK, Kale RR, Wachtel E, Namboothiri IIN, et al. Role of amphiphilic [metal:chelator] complexes in a non-chromatographic antibody purification platform. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019;1133: 121830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121830.  Manzke O, Tesch H, Diehl V, Bohlen. Single-step purification of bispecific monoclonal antibodies for immunotherapeutic use by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. J Immunol Methods 1997;208(1):65–73. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0022-1759(97)00129-4.  Guse AH, Milton AD, Schulze-Koops H, Müller B, Roth E, et al. Purification and analytical characterization of an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody for human therapy. J Chromatogr A 1994;661(1-2):13–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/00219673(94)85173-5.  Follman DK, Fahrner RL. Factorial screening of antibody purification processes using three chromatography steps without protein A. J Chromatogr A 2004;1024 (1-2):79–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.10.060.  Ghosh R, Wang L. Purification of humanized monoclonal antibody by hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2005;1107(1):104–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.035.  Patchornik G, Namboothiri INN, Divya NK, Wachtel E, Persky R. Tethered nonionic micelles: a matrix for enhanced solubilization of lipophilic compounds. Soft Matter 2012;8(32):8456–63. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2SM25708D.  Patchornik G, Wacthel E, Kesselman E, Danino D. Cryo-TEM structural analysis of conjugated nonionic engineered-micelles. Soft Matter 2014;10(27):4922–8. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4SM00462K.  Dutta S, Nair DK, Namboothiri INN, Wachtel E, Friedman N, et al. Engineeredmembranes and engineered-micelles as efficient tools for purification of halorhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin. Analyst 2015;140(1):204–12. https://doi. org/10.1039/C4AN01423E.  Martell AE, Smith RM. Critical stability constants. New York: Plenum Press; 1974. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781461567660.  Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970;227(5259):680–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/ 227680a0.  Roberts CJ. Therapeutic protein aggregation: mechanisms, design, and control. Trends Biotechnol 2014;32(7):372–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tibtech.2014.05.005.  Dhandapani G, Howard A, Truong VT, Baiju TV, Kesselman E, et al. A general platform for antibody purification utilizing engineered-micelles. MAb’s 2019;11 (3):583–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121830.  Kunert R, Reinhart D. Advances in recombinant antibody manufacturing. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016;100(8):3451–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253016-7388-9.  Irving H, Mellor DH. The stability of metal complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline and its analogues. Part I. 1,10-Phenanthroline and 2,2′ -bipyridyl. J Chem Soc (Resumed) 1962:5222–37. https://doi.org/10.1039/JR9620005222.  Derman DP, Green A, Bothwell TH, Graham B, McNamara L, et al. A systematic evaluation of bathophenanthroline, ferrozine and ferene in an ICSH-based method for the measurement of serum iron. Ann Clin Biochem 1989;26(Pt 2):144–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/000456328902600209.
We thank the Kimmelman Center for Biomolecular Structure and Assembly and the Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science for their generous support of M.S, who holds the Katzir Makineni Chair in Chemistry. G. P. thanks Ariel University for its support, Dr. Shira Albeck (Weizmann Institute of Science) for providing E. coli lysate and Dr. Rami Kriger for his assistance with the analysis of the LC–MS samples. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2020.11.013. References  Alkan SS. Monoclonal antibodies: the story of a discovery that revolutionized science and medicine. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4(2):153–6. https://doi.org/ 10.1038/nri1265.  Weiner GJ. Building better monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics. Nat Rev Cancer 2015;15:361–70. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc3930.  Liu JK. The history of monoclonal antibody development - Progress, remaining challenges and future innovations. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2014;3(4):113–6. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2014.09.001.  Mullard A. Maturing antibody-drug conjugate pipeline hits 30. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2013;12(5):329–32. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd4009.  Sievers EL, Senter PD. Antibody-drug conjugates in cancer therapy. Annu Rev Med 2013;64:15–29. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurec-med-0503110201823.  Strohl WR. Current progress in innovative engineered antibodies. Protein Cell 2018;9(1):86–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-017-0457-8.  Kaplon H, Reichert JM. Antibodies to watch in 2019. MAb’s 2019;11(2):219–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2018.1556465.  Hober S, Nord K, Linhult M. Protein A chromatography for antibody purification. J Chromatogr B 2007;848(1):40–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jchromb.2006.09.030.  DeLano WL, Ultsch MH, deVos AM, Wells JA. Convergent solutions to binding at a protein-protein interface. Science 2000;287:1279–83. https://doi.org/10.1126/ science.287.5456.1279.  Page M, Thorpe R. Purification of IgG using protein a or protein G. In: Walker JM, editor. The protein protocols handbook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2002. p. 993–4. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781592591695#aboutBook.  Azevedo AM, Gomes AG, Rosa Paula AJ, Ferreira IF, Pisco Angela MMO, et al. Partitioning of human antibodies in polyethylene glycol–sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems. Sep Purif Technol 2009;65(1):14–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.seppur.2007.12.010.  Low D, O’Leary R, Pujar NS. Future of antibody purification. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007;848(1):48–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jchromb.2006.10.033.  Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL. The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. mAb’s 2015;7(1):9–14. https://doi.org/10.4161/19420862.2015.989042.  Gagnon P. Technology trends in antibody purification. J Chromatogr A 2012;1221: 57–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.10.034.  Wurm FM. Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol 2004;22(11):1393–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/ nbt1026.  Linhult M, Gülich S, Gr¨ aslund T, Simon A, Karlsson M, et al. Improving the tolerance of a protein a analogue to repeated alkaline exposures using a bypass mutagenesis approach. Proteins 2004;55(2):407–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/ prot.10616.