REVIEWS AND ABSTRACTS
Book reviews and article abstracts Alex Jacobson, DMD, MS, PhD Birmingham, Ala
Essays on Earl Renfroe—A man of firsts William S. Bike, editor The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry Press, 2001; 96 pages; $14.95.
At whatever he did, Earl W. Renfroe, DDS, MS, was the best. “Dr Renfroe was a brilliant dental student, the best hands-on clinical orthodontics instructor of his time, a pilot, a soldier, a leader in the fight for racial equality, and a true gentleman,” said Dr Richard P. Perry, former president of the Illinois State Dental Association. “Yet his story has largely been unknown to the public— until now.” African American history expert Dr Charles Driskell writes that this man “belongs in the same category” with Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois. After graduating first in his class at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) College of Dentistry in 1931 (the first student in its history to study dentistry while working full time), Dr Renfroe taught there from the 1930s through the 1980s, becoming its first African American department head in 1966. He often broke down barriers for African Americans. He integrated care at the UIC College of Dentistry when virtually no other school had done so, he was the first African American orthodontist to open an office in Chicago’s Loop, and he was the first African American in Illinois to be licensed as a commercial airline pilot. The list of his accomplishments is unmatched on its own but is even more impressive in light of the racial prejudice he endured. Several chapters examining racial issues were written by Dr Driskell, whose previous work includes History of Chicago Black Dental Professionals 1850-1983. With fellow faculty member Dr Thomas K. Barber of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dr Renfroe wrote a seminal article on preventive and interceptive orthodontics in 1957. Dr Barber, founder of the pediatric dentistry program at UCLA, contributed a chapter on the impact of their research. A citizen of the world, Dr Renfroe also is considered a father of orthodontics in Brazil. Chapters by Dr Paulo Affonso de Freitas, founder of several Brazilian dental societies, and Dr Ronald A. Ramsay, a top orthodontist from Barbados, explain Dr Renfroe’s international accomplishments. His military career in the U. S. Army Reserves and the Illinois National Guard stretched from the 1930s to the 1980s, culminating when he attained the rank of general in the Guard
in 1984. His military and aviation exploits are detailed in a chapter by Earl Renfroe Jr, a retired U. S. Air Force colonel. Other contributors include Bruce Graham and Mark J. Valentino, dean and assistant dean, respectively, of the UIC College of Dentistry. Essays on Earl Renfroe—A Man of Firsts has received a number of kudos. Jack G. Dale, chairman of the board, Tweed Foundation, and former president of the American Board of Orthodontics and the Canadian Association of Orthodontists, stated that the book “is a must-read for those who wish to learn more about a remarkable human being whose versatility was astounding.” Dr Albert L. Jackson, former president of the Lincoln Dental Society, said, “This book tells the story of how with courage, intelligence, and perseverance, a man of color can overcome tremendous odds and finally overcome a system of racism.” William S. Bike 0889-5406/2002/$35.00 ⫹ 0 8/8/122495 doi:10.1067/mod.2002.122495 Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002;121:431 Copyright © 2002 by the American Association of Orthodontists.
Oral development and histology, 3rd edition James K. Avery, editor Thieme Medical Publishers, Stuttgart and New York; 2001; 435 pages, 807 illustrations; $69.00.
This book is divided into 6 sections. The first describes the important developmental events between conception and birth in the human and how the structures relate to the body as a whole. Not to be underestimated are the environmental causes of congenital malformations, including teratogenic habits such as smoking, and drinking alcohol and caffeine, during early pregnancy that may affect the normal development of the pharyngeal arches and the face. Described are how various malformations of the face and palate occur, such as unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and/or palate. The second section describes in great detail the developing crowns and roots of the teeth and the tissues surrounding and supporting them. This section includes descriptions of the processes of tooth eruption and shedding, and the various agents and deficiencies that affect bone and tooth development. The third section begins with a chapter describing the physical features of enamel that make it resistant or susceptible to caries and fracture. This is followed by a chapter on the developmental origin of the various types of dentin. The
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics /April 2002
432 Reviews and Abstracts
next chapter describes the cellular, vascular, and neural elements of the pulp. The similarities and differences between the primary and permanent teeth and how they relate to clinical treatment are described in the last chapter of this section. The first 3 chapters of the fourth section deal with the histology and function of the supporting structures of the teeth (the bony alveolar process, the root-covered cementum, and the intervening periodontal ligament), the histology of the oral mucosa and tonsils, and the histology of the gingiva and epithelial attachment. The last chapter in this section, entitled “Innervation of oral tissues,” describes the organization of the peripheral nervous system and its general distribution in the oral region. The fifth section is devoted to the development, structure, and function of saliva, pellicle, plaque, and calculus. The first chapter in the final section describes the histology of the nasal mucosa and the paranasal sinuses. The last 3 chapters are likely to be of particular interest to orthodontists. The first is a detailed description of the condyles, the temporal fossae, the articulating disc and capsule, and the function of the joint. The next chapter describes in detail the histologic changes in the periodontium that result from tipping, bodily movements, and intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces on the tooth root during clinical treatment. The final chapter deals with the histology of endosseous implants, describing the unique epithelium, the connective tissue, and the bone interface with the implant surface, and with wound healing. This beautifully illustrated, updated, and expanded edition, comprising 23 chapters, of this well-known histology textbook by the editor and 13 contributing authorities in their respective fields make this a valuable reference for any dental professional to own and a must for all dental libraries. Alex Jacobson 0889-5406/2002/$35.00 ⫹ 0 8/8/122488 doi:10.1067/mod.2002.122488 Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002;121:431-2 Copyright © 2002 by the American Association of Orthodontists.
A comparison of parents’ and patients’ views of orthognathic treatment S. Derwent, N. P. Hunt, and S. J. Cunningham International Journal of Adult Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgery 2001;16:171-8
The aim of this retrospective study was to assess parents’ views of orthognathic treatment and compare them with those of their child who had undergone treatment. The authors concluded that both parents and patients believed that there had been highly significant improvements in facial and dental appearance and in self-confidence after treatment. The parents, however, rated their child’s facial and dental appearance and self-confidence higher both preoperatively and postoperatively than the patients rated themselves. Among the recommendations was that information pro-
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics April 2002
vision must be of the highest quality and in several formats (verbal and written) and made available to both parents and patientsAQ. Parents and patients who were the happiest with the information felt better prepared for treatment. Also, contact with previous patients may be of benefit and should be suggested routinely rather than waiting for a patient to request it. Counseling should be available for both patients and parents at any point during treatment. Alex Jacobson 0889-5406/2002/$35.00 ⫹ 0 8/3/120753 doi:10.1067/mod.2002.120753 Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002;121:432 Copyright © 2002 by the American Association of Orthodontists.
Extraction of a mandibular incisor Andre´ Pujol, E´tiene Bardinet, Ce´dric Bazert, and Kamar El Amrani Darque Revue d’Orthopedie Dento Faciale 2001;35:185-96.
The therapeutic extraction of a mandibular incisor may be a solution in selected cases of a tooth size discrepancy in the canine-incisor region. The 4 incontestable orthodontic indications for extracting a mandibular incisor are: 1. A tooth size discrepancy of 4 to 6 mm of mandibular excess; 2. A moderate pseudo-Class III malocclusion; 3. Agenesis or previous extraction of a maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary lateral incisor, or incisors affected by microdontia; and 4. All other nonorthodontic situations, such as compensatory interproximal stripping or adjusting the axial inclination of incisors in instances of dimensional variability in the canine-incisor region of the arch. The authors caution against basing an extraction decision exclusively on the Bolton index. Extracting a mandibular incisor in conjunction with removing 2 maxillary premolars must be reserved for exceptional cases. A final evaluation of treatment objectives should not be made until a Kesling diagnostic setup has been studied. All cases of agenesis or loss of a mandibular incisor require orthodontic treatment to provide occlusal compensations. Alex Jacobson 0889-5406/2002/$35.00 ⫹ 0 8/3/120018 doi:10.1067/mod.2002.120018 Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002;121:432 Copyright © 2002 by the American Association of Orthodontists.
Maxillary expansion: long-term stability and smile esthetics Bjo¨rn U. Zachrisson World Journal of Orthodontics 2001;2:266-72
By reviewing the available literature on maxillary expansion, the author attempts to answer controversial questions