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Leung R L., Fan P. L. and Johnston W. M. (1983) Post irradiation polymerisation of visible light activated composite resin. J. Dent. Res. 62, 363-365. Lutz F., Setcos J. C. and Phillips R W. (1983) New finishing instruments for composite resins. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 107,575-580. Northeast S. E. and van Noort R (1988) Surface characteristics of finished posterior composite resins. Dent. Mater. 4, 278-288. Pearson G. J. and Messing J. J. (1979) The abrasivity of finishing agents used on composite tilling material. J. Dent. 7, 105-l 10.
Reinhardt J. W., Denehy G. E., Chan K. C. et al. (1983) Determining smoothness of polished microfill composite resins. J. Prosthet. Dent. 49,485-490. Roulet J. F. (1988) The problems associated with substituting composite resins for amalgam: a status report on posterior composites. J. Dent. 16, 101-l 13. Van Noort R and Davis L. G. (1984) The surface finish of composite resin restorative materials. Br. Dent. J. 157, 360-364. Weitman R T. and Eames W. B. (1975) Plaque accumulation on composite surfaces after various finishing procedures. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 91, 101-106.
Correspondence should be addressed to: Mr S. A. Whitehead, Unit of Conservative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester Ml5 6FH, UK.
Book Review Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 3rd edition. WHO. Pp. 53. 1987. Geneva, WHO. Softback, US!§8~40. Prevention of Oral Disease. WHO. Pp. 83. 1987. Geneva, WHO. Softback, US$8.40. Great importance is attached to basic oral health surveys by the World Health Organization and this led to the production of their first manual on basic methods in 1971. The second edition appeared in 1977 and the considerable changes in oral health trends and treatment since then have necessitated this third edition. Most of the revisions should be welcomed: clearly no more than basic methodology can be covered in 53 pages. The division of specific topics into six separate chapters is an improvement on previous editions. The first, on the design of a basic oral health survey, is a little disappointing and compared with the second edition, the section on sample size and level of precision is less readable and clear for the non-statistician. However, the addition of the index ages and age groups are welcome since these have been widely used in many recent oral health surveys. The advice on organizing the survey and reliability of the data is generally sound and practical, but to cold sterilize instruments for 30 minutes in the presence of blood is inadequate. The use of survey forms is very clear with precise instructions on recommended procedures for recording data. The introduction of the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) represents a major, but welcome, change and is nicely complemented by colour photographs. However the inclusion of the third molars is contrary to other WHO publications. Although the codes differ, the criteria for diagnosing dental caries remain the same, requiring the use of a probe, a method which some epidemiologists now find unacceptable. Excellent colour photographs accompany the section on enamel disorders and opacities, and the
newly included Dean’s index of fluorosis, while treatment needs for dentures have been introduced for the first time. Some very useful suggestions on the preparation of reports and presentation of results are found in the final chapter. This manual continues to be essential for health administrators responsible for surveys of oral health status and treatment needs, and should be found in the pocket of all those actually involved. The second WHO booklet is somewhat longer. It deals with all the currently accepted methods for the prevention of oral diseases and was prepared as a guide for those planning and implementing preventive programmes, in both developing and industrialized countries. The first half sets out simply and clearly the steps required in designing such programmes and gives five examples to show how these depend on the level of resources available. The only difference between the first and second examples is the number of people involved and, therefore, to prevent confusion for the reader, the explanation of the similarities between all five at the end would have been better placed at the beginning. The second half consists of nine annexes beginning with health education, followed by succinct descriptions of the prevention of dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, other oral mucosa disease, developmental and acquired defects of dental hard tissues, and dentofacial anomalies. Whereas 19 references are cited to support the caries preventive methods described, there are none on the prevention of periodontal disease nor any mention of CPITN. Overall, this is an informative publication which can be widely recommended for those who have little or no experience in this field, while for those who have already gained some, it will serve as a concise and useful reminder of how to plan, implement and, in particular, evaluate a successful preventive programme. V. Clerehugh