Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration

Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration

G Model ARTICLE IN PRESS AEUE 51437 1–7 Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Internationa...

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G Model

ARTICLE IN PRESS

AEUE 51437 1–7

Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ) journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aeue

SHORT COMMUNICATION

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Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration

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Deepali K. Borakhade a,∗ , S.B. Pokle b a

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b

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Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering and Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Electronics and Telecommunication Department, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

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a r t i c l e

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i n f o

a b s t r a c t

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Article history: Received 1 May 2015 Accepted 21 June 2015

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Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna Wireless communication system PIN diode

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1. Introduction

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With the advances in the field of communication and the current state of affairs in the development of antennas the need of compact multiband, multifunctional and cost effective antenna is increased. The study of reconfigurable antennas has made great progress in recent years. They are lighter in weight, smaller in dimension and lower in price. Again, the reconfigurable antennas can offer variety of features like change in operating resonant frequency, polarization, and radiation pattern. As a result of the significance of frequency reconfigurable antennas, along with extensive literature survey a microstrip antenna is taken as basic structure. A pentagon resonator slot is chosen and its simulation and fabrication is carried out. This paper presents new design of slot resonator with fabrication result. The design is modified to work for multiband and wideband antenna. The reconfiguration is done using Pin diode to switch between multiband and wideband. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Wireless communication is budding towards multifuctionality. There are many wireless communication systems in our day-today lives such as cellular radio systems, mobile satellite systems, wireless local area networks, etc. All these systems are still undergoing a great progress, with constantly promising new solutions. The ever-growing requests for the capacity of a communication channel and necessity of diversity will soon be not viable by means of classical antennas. Therefore, reconfigurability will become a key need in the near future. The concept of reconfigurable antenna firstly appeared in D. Schaubert’s patent “Frequency-Agile, Polarization Diverse Microstrip Antenna and Frequency Scanned Arrays” in 1983. A significant number of reconfigurable antennas incorporating switch, both switching in or out parts of the antenna structure and switching between external matching circuits have been designed till date. By incorporating PIN diodes, varactors, radio frequency micromechanical systems (RF-MEMS), photo conductive elements or liquid crystals or by physical altering antenna structures reconfigurability of frequency, polarization, radiation patterns or all of these can be achieved. Frequency Reconfigurable antennas have

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9422573523. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (D.K. Borakhade), [email protected] (S.B. Pokle).

received significant attention for their applications in communications, electronic surveillance and countermeasures. These can help to achieve selectivity in frequency, bandwidth, polarization and gain. As a result of the significance of frequency reconfigurable antennas, in this paper, the latest researches on wideband antenna are analyzed and summarized which are illustrated in Sections 2 and 3. In Sections 4 and 5 the future work and conclusion is presented. 2. Frequency reconfigurable antenna Frequency reconfigurable antenna has the reconfiguration of the resonant frequency by the change of the structure, while the radiation patterns and polarization remain unchanged. So, frequency reconfigurable antenna can be functional among a very wide arrangement of frequency band or among multiple frequency bands. A lot of frequency reconfigurable antenna designs have been proposed in Refs. [1–4]. Frequency reconfigurable antennas can be classified according to their reconfiguration techniques. Lumped-elements, variable capacitors, silicon photo switches, MEMs switches or PIN diodes are usually incorporated in the design of the reconfigurable antenna. The characteristics of frequency reconfigurable antennas are estimated from parameters such as effective bandwidth, operating frequencies and associated applications, tunable frequency range or number of resonant frequencies, and their performance especially depend on the consistency of matching, gain and radiation pattern.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012 1434-8411/© 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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Fig. 1. (a) Pentagon slot resonator, (b) current distribution.

The shapes like circle, triangle, square and pentagon are designed and their performance analysis is carried out. The slots are compared on return loss, bandwidth, directivity, etc. The comparison result shows circle and pentagon are having good gain. So pentagon slot is chosen. The FR4 is selected as substrate. The antenna with pentagon slot design is simulated and it works for frequency 2.4 GHz. Its design and current distribution is as shown in Fig. 1. It shows that maximum current flows at edges of slot The return loss achieved is −12.18 at 2.4 GHz and VSWR is 1.6524 at 2.4 GHz. The design is then modified to work on dual band. Two pentagon slots are added to obtain dual band. The design is then modified to work for dual band frequencies. The arrangement of slot and its current distributions is as shown in Fig. 2 and will work for two bands of frequencies 1.54 GHz and 2.64 GHz. The return loss, VSWR and directivity at 1.54 GHz are −18.56, 1.26, and 2.2 while at 2.64 GHz it is −15.84, 1.36 and 2.2, respectively. This antenna works for two narrowband frequencies. The directivity of dual band pentagon slot resonator is found to be 2.42 dB. Fig. 3 shows 3D polar plot for the dual band antenna Again the design is modified by adding three pentagon slots to have multiband performance. Fig. 4 shows design and current distribution in multiband design. This antenna will operate at 1.68 GHz, 2.54 GHz and 1.32 GHz. Here it works for three narrowband frequency. The return loss at 1.68 GHz, 2.54 GHz and 1.32 GHz are found to be −13.60, −16.82 and −18.67, respectively where as VSWR at same frequencies are 1.28, 1.52 and 1.35, respectively. Fig. 4 shows return loss and VSWR at three narrowband frequencies (Fig. 5). Fig. 6 shows 3D polar plot of multiband pentagon slot resonator.

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Switching or tuning inside an antenna or in an external circuit can be achieved by means of PIN diodes, GaAs FETs (Gallium arsenide field-effect transistor), MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices or varactors [5,6]. MEMS devices have the advantage of very low loss, but the disadvantages of these are high operating voltage, high cost and lower reliability than semiconductor devices [7]. GaAs FETs used in switching mode, with zero drain to source bias current, have low power consumption but poorer linearity and higher loss. PIN diodes can achieve low loss at low cost, but the disadvantage is that in the on state there is a forward bias dc current, which degrades the overall power efficiency. Varactor diodes have the advantage of providing continuous reactive tuning rather than switching, but suffer from poor linearity. Changing the substrate permittivity to shift the resonant frequency is another approach, but the cost may be problematic. Adjusting the resonant frequency by changing the antenna geometry using mechanical movement can provide lossless and ideal linearity. However, it needs mechanical adjustment and requires more time for switching between frequency operating bands. One of the challenges of the multiple application systems is the design of multiband antenna. Multiband antennas are considered good solution for supporting many different applications with good performance at all frequency bands. Bluetooth and WLAN operate in 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band (frequency range 2.4–2.5 GHz). Mobile WiMAX operating bands are 2.3 GHz (frequency range 2.3–2.4 GHz) and 3.5 GHz (frequency range 3.4–3.6 GHz). To provide seamless internet access for the mobile devices a multiband antenna for Wi-Fi, mobile WiMAX and WLAN operation is necessary. As a result of the significance of frequency reconfigurable antennas, along with extensive literature survey, microstrip antenna has been chosen as a basic structure. The radiations will occur when slot width is approximately half of the wavelength.

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3. Pentagon slot resonator antenna design

The antenna with pentagon slot resonator was simulated using Ansoft HFSS and fabricated on a 1.6-mm FR4 substrate of permittivity 4.4. The fabricated antenna is tested on RF network analyzer. The substrate dimension is choosen to have ground plane lambda/2. The calculation of patch on antenna are done according to formulas to design microstrip patch antenna. Fabrication of dual band is done and its simulated and measured are observed and compared. A photograph of the fabricated antenna is shown in Fig. 7 with top view and bottom view. The VSWR and return loss for dual band are shown in Fig. 8. The value of return loss at 1.54 GHz and 2.64 GHz are −18.56 and −15.84 respectively and the VSWR are 1.26 and 1.38, respectively. The impedance match is also studied on network analyzer.

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Reconfigurable antennas are more versatile as it has one geometry and multiple operating modes. To design wideband antenna the operating frequency is chosen as 1.0–3.2 GHz taking into consideration Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and GPs applications which will be further modified to work as MIMO antenna for these applications. There are different shapes available according to our desire, often few shapes are mostly used like rectangular, square, dipole, circular, elliptical, triangular etc. as the requirement. These shapes are most common because of ease of analysis and fabrication and their attractive radiation characteristic. The Performance of patch depends upon size and shape.

4. Simulation and measurement

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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Fig. 2. (a) Design of dual band pentagon slot resonators and (b) simulated current distribution.

Fig. 3. 3D Radiation pattern of dual band pentagon slot resonator.

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The comparison study between simulated and fabricated dual band antenna is carried out and is as shown in Table 1.1. It is found that fabricated antenna works better than the simulated antenna.

Reconfiguration of frequency can be achieved by incorporating lumped-elements, variable capacitors, silicon photo switches, MEMs switches or PIN diodes. Here PIN diode is used to have frequency reconfiguration. SMP 1320 series PIN diode is used. It has

Fig. 4. (a) Design of multiband pentagon slot resonator and (b) simulated current distribution.

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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Fig. 5. (a) Return loss and (b) VSWR at 1.68 GHz, 2.54 GHz and 1.32 GHz of multiband pentagon slot resonator current distribution.

Table 1.1 Comparison results of simulated and fabricated dual band antenna. S.N

Parameters

Freq (GHz)

Return loss (dB)

VSWR

BW (MHz)

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Two slot MSA simulated

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Two slot MSA fabricated

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1) −18.56 2) −15.84 1) −18.56 2) −15.84

1) 1.26 2) 1.36 1) 1.06 1) 1.12

1) 147 2) 260 1) 290 2) 370

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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Fig. 6. 3D polar plot of multiband pentagon slot resonator.

Fig. 7. Design of dualband pentagon slot resonator. (a) Bottom view and (b) top view.

Fig. 8. (a) VSWR and (b) return loss in dualband pentagonal slot resonator on network analyzer. 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176

low RF resistance with dc current of only 10 mA or less. The series switch is ON when diode is forward biased. It can control large amount of RF power. This PIN diode has 0.9  and capacitance of 0.3 pF. The PIN diode is inserted in multiband slot antenna to switch antenna form multiband to wideband. Here PIN diode acts as switch. When it is ON bandwidth increases and when it is OFF antenna work on multiband frequencies. Two SMP 1320 series PIN diodes are added in pentagonal slot resonator. Fig. 9 shows design of pentagon slot resonator antenna after inserting PIN diodes. When both the diodes are OFF the bandwidth achieved is 354 MHz for frequency between 1.28 GHz and 1.64 GHz and for frequencies between 2.43 GHz and 2.78 GHz the bandwidth is 347 MHz, respectively. When one PIN diode is ON and one is OFF and when both the PIN diodes are ON the bandwidth achieved for different frequency ranges is tabulated in Table 1.2.

Fig. 9. Design of pentagon slot resonator after inserting PIN diode.

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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Table 1.2 Bandwidth ranges after incorporating the switches in pentagonal slot of antenna. S. No.

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Bandwidth (MHz)

Switch 1

Switch 2

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1.24–1.39 1.46–1.72 2.36–2.62

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ON

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1.28–1.72 2.40–2.63 2.70–2.78

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OFF

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1.28–1.64 2.43–2.78

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OFF

5. Conclusion A novel pentagon slot resonator antenna has been proposed. For two slots pentagonal resonator the bandwidths for frequency 1.54 GHz is 147 MHz and for 2.62 GHZ is 260 MHz. For three pentagonal slot resonator the bandwidths obtain at 1.32 GHz, 1.68 GHz, 2.54 GHz is 134 MHz, 226 MHz, 273 MHz respectively. For dual slot

3D Gain plot

the return loss is found to be −18.56 and −15.84 and that of three slots is −18.67, −13.60 and −16.82, respectively. The fabricated two-slot antenna has return loss of −18.56 and −15.84 at frequencies 1.54 GHz and 2.62 GHz. It has VSWR of 1.06 and 1.12 at 1.54 GHz and 2.62 GHz frequencies, respectively. The bandwidth achieved is 290 MHz and 370 MHz. After inserting the PIN diode antenna is able to switch between narrowband to wideband frequencies.

Please cite this article in press as: Borakhade DK, Pokle SB. Pentagon slot resonator frequency reconfigurable antenna for wideband reconfiguration. Int J Electron Commun (AEÜ) (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2015.06.012

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The bandwidth achieved is upto 440 MHz. The switch between the frequencies is achieved and is reflected in simulation. 6. Future work This paper presents a brief review of recent research frequency reconfigurable antennas. The performances of reconfigurable antennas need to be improved for adapting to different applications. The performance of a reconfigurable antenna greatly depends on the element(s) that enable reconfiguration. Evaluation and analysis of frequency reconfigurable antenna will be done in future works. Again the design will be modified to get used for MIMO system. Finally, it is accomplished that a lot of research is required to be done in antenna design for the better routine of wireless systems, which form a core part for the future 4G communications. Uncited references [8,9].

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References [1] Cho J, Jung CW, Kim K. Frequency-reconfigurable two-port antenna for mobile phone operating over multiple service bands. IET Electron Lett 2009;45(September (20)):1009–11. [2] Yang SLS, Kishk AA, Kai FL. Frequency reconfigurable U-slot microstrip patch antenna. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag Lett 2008;7(May):127–9. [3] Han TY, Huang CT. Reconfigurable monopolar patch antenna. IET Electron Lett 2010;46(February (3)):199–200. [4] Sheta AF, Mahmoud SF. A widely tunable compact patch antenna. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag Lett 2008;7(March):40–2. [5] Yashchyshyn Y. Reconfigurable antennas by RF switches technology. In: Perspective Technologies and Methods in MEMS Design, 2009. MEMSTECH 2009, 5th International Conference. 2009. [6] Gardner P, Hamid MR, Hall PS, Kelly J, Ghanem F, Ebrahimi E. Reconfigurable antennas for cognitive radioL requirements and potential design approaches. In: Seminar on Wideband, Multiband Antennas and Arrays for Defence or Civil Applications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology; 2008. p. 89–94. [7] Rebeiz GM, Muldavin JB. RF MEMS switches and switch circuits. Microw Mag IEEE 2001;2:59–71. [8] Hamid MR, Gardner P, Hall PS, Ghanem F. Switched-band Vivaldi antenna. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 2011;59(May (5)). [9] Hamid MR, Hall PS, Gardner P, Ghanem F. Frequency reconfigurable Vivaldi antenna. In: 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference in Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). 2010. p. 1–4.

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