Perfumery: practice and principles

Perfumery: practice and principles

journal of ELSEVIER controlled release Journal of Controlled Release 40 (1996) 143 - 144 Book Reviews A.G. de Boer (Ed.), Drug Absorption Enhanceme...

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journal of

ELSEVIER

controlled release Journal of Controlled Release 40 (1996) 143 - 144

Book Reviews A.G. de Boer (Ed.), Drug Absorption Enhancement: Concepts, Possibilities and Trends, Harwood Publishers, New York, 240 pp., £78. Drug absorption enhancement has gained wide attention over the last decades as it became clear that a whole range of modern, pharmacologically active compounds failed to be successful, because of poor absorption and disposition characteristics. Among those compounds one can find peptides and proteins, two categories which are biopharmaceutically highly problematic. The publication of this book devoted to absorption enhancement approaches is therefore timely. This book clearly demonstrates that the field of absorption enhancement still has to prove that problems related to poor absorption and delivery can be tackled successfully with safe and acceptable enhancement technologies. Its first chapters expertly deal with topics such as absorption barriers, mechanism of absorption and the use of in vitro cell culture systems to evaluate absorption enhancement. Special attention is also given to possibilities offered by manipulating the paracellular route and transcytosis to overcome absorption barriers. One chapter deals with the critical issue of safety assessment of intestinal permeability enhancers. Chapters on different routes of administration and absorption enhancement provide relevant informaLion on the techniques used. The nose, GI tract and skin (two chapters) were selected. Other routes of administration are not dealt with in detail. While going through the text the reader encounlets a number of widely different approaches for tbsorption enhancement: the use of surfactants, ionophoresis, protease inhibition, lipidic prodrugs, ul-

trasound, cyclodextrins, nanoparticles and carnitine. Some overlap occurs in the chapters on absorption barriers and transcytosis and the chapters on iontophoresis. Some points of criticism could be mentioned. What has not been dealt with are controversial concepts such as the use of liposomes for transdermal delivery. Moreover, too little attention has been paid to interesting prodrug approaches utilising peptide or bile salt transporters. Another omission is the lack of a concluding chapter on the question 'where the field is going'? What are concepts that have proved to be unsuccessful, and why? What are approaches to be further developed? In spite of the above criticism, I consider the book a must for all who are at the present time interesting in the 'state of the art' of absorption enhancement concepts. It is adequately referenced with references up to 1993, it contains a list of contents and the printing quality is good. DAAN J.A. CROMMELIN

Dept. Pharmaceutic& Utrecht University

R.R. Calkin and J.S. Jellinek, Perfumery: Practice and Principles, Wiley, New York, N.Y., 1994, xi + 287 pages, $80.50. The book reviewed here is a unique and useful reference for those who are interested in applying controlled release technology principles to the field of release of essential oils and perfume components.The book contains a reasonable number of chemical compounds that are components of per-

H68-3659/96/$15.00 © 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ?SDI 0 1 6 8 - 3 6 5 9 ( 9 5 ) 0 0 1 3 7 - 9

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Book ReL, iews

fumes. Main chemical properties, especially in relation to volatility, are summarized and common names are presented. Chemical aspects are rather on the basic side, but emphasis is given to the formulation of successful products.To enjoy this book you must be heavily involved in controlled release applied to consumer products. The material is fascinating (and very clearly presented) but there is little scientific analysis. Recommended with some hesitance, but only to those with adventurous scientific interests. Reviewed by Nicholas A. Peppas School of Chemical Engineering Purdue University

D.O. Cooney, Activated Charcoal in Medical Applications, Dekker, New York, N.Y., 1995, xix + 586 pages. Twenty years ago, David Cooney now of the University of Wyoming, wrote a book on Principles of Biomedical Engineering that became the standard textbook in the field. Concise, accurate and educationally written, this textbook became the sine qua non in the field. Professor Cooney has now returned

with another winner, a book that presents an exhaustive analysis of the use of activated charcoal in a plethora of medical applications.I do not recall ot any other monographs on the subject with such broad and deep coverage. The book concentrates or the chemistry and pharmacology of activated charcoal, describes its current clinical applications fol poisoning treatment and promotes studies for it, potential clinical application in gastroenterology ant other medical areas. Although not directly related t( drug delivery, this book will be of interest to th~ readers of this Journal. For example, in the book yol will find chapters on the fundamentals of activate( charcoal and the adsorption process, properties o antidotal charcoal, pharmacokinetic modeling as re lated to charcoal utilization, treating poisoning an~ drug overdose, effects of charcoal on major classe of drugs and chemicals, multiple doses, effect o time, food and gastric pH, etc.Well written an, amply documented with over 1,500 citations, thi will be a major reference in the field. Highly recon~ mended. Reviewed by Nicholas A. Peppas School of Chem cal Engineering Purdue University