Phosphor-bronze

Phosphor-bronze

228 Editorial. vention, ilk) In all respects, and particularly as regards the pro_ eeoding in the granting of patents, the Congress refers to the En...

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228

Editorial.

vention, ilk) In all respects, and particularly as regards the pro_ eeoding in the granting of patents, the Congress refers to the English, American and Belgian patent laws, and to the draft of a patentlaw prepared for Germany by the Society of German Engineers. 3. Considering the great difference in patent administration, and~ the altered international commercial relations~ the necessity of reform is evident, and it is of pressing moment that the governments shoul& endeavor to bring about an international understanding upon patent protection as soon as possible. 4. The Congress empowers the preparatory committee to continue the work commenced by this first International Congress, and to use all their influence that the principles adopted be made known as widely as possibl% and carried into practice. 5. The committee is likewise authorised to endeavor to bring about an exchange of opinions on the subject, an'd to call, from time to time~ meetings and conferences of the frien(ls of patent protection. 6. To this end ~he preparatory committee is hereby appointed to act as a permanent executive, with power to add other members to their number~ and to appoint; the time and place for the next meeting of the Congress, in c~lse such a meeting should be considered necessary for the promotion of tile foregoing resolutions. Phosphor-:Bronze.--The industrial exhibitions ~broad have afforded an opportunity for the display of many interesting and valuable efforts ih behalf of industri~ll progress. As of special note we may refer to the display of objects in phosphor-hronze~ of which much has lately been said. To recall this subject to mind it will be well to state that the metal in question is a new kind of bronze, patented by ~Iessrs. 5Iontefiore and Kunzel, and is composed of varying proportions of copper, tin and phosphorus. The alloy is eap~ble of being made tough and malleable, or hard, at will, according as the proportions of the materials are varied. The presence of phosphorus in its composition permits of making very clean and sharp castings. :Dr. J. R. ~Jann~ on behalf of the Society of Arts, gives the following list of exhibited objects in this metal, which affords an excellent illustration of the various uses to which it is designed to put it. The list comprises heavy bearings of machinery, cog wheels, guns and cartridge cases, wit% tuyeres for blast furnaces, and. ornamental castings of various kinds; tools and appliances, such as hammers~ knives, seissors~ hinges~ locks, keys, bells, netting, seives~ &e.

Items and Novelties.

229

A contemporary (Iron), referring to the subject, remarks amongst ~other things ; the new alloy which has been recently brought before ~he public is likely to be much patronized, especially in manufactures •where steel is useless or dangerous. The reasons given by the patentee are that it can be made, according to the wish of the operator, more ductile than copper, as tough as wrought iron, or as hard as steel; it possesses great fluidity; its homogeneity is complete, and its grain is as fine as that of east-steel. It may be perfectly controlled to suit any particular purpose for which it is intended, and it can be made either hard or soft, tough or brittle, and its ductility, elasticity, or hardness can be regulated with the most perfect accuracy. Unlike other alloys it can he re-melted without any material loss or alteration of its quality, while heavy steel castings, when worn out or broken, are comparatively worthless. A great variety of objects hitherto worked in iron and steel may now be cast in the new alloy, and in a great many cases they require only a polish to make them ready for use ; besides which they do not corrode as do articles of iron or steel. The great fluidity, compactness and flue grain, as also the beautiful color of the metal, especially recommend it for the decorative art, while the perfection of the castings greatlyreduces the cost of chasing and finishing. This alloy stretches more than copper, or any of its ordinary compounds, and plates of it have been reduced by a single cold rolling to one-fifth of their thickness, the edges remaining perfectly sound and without .crack. :By order of the Prussian Ministry of Commerce, experiments have been made with the various kinds of phosphor alloy, the object of which was to ascertain the resistance of the metal to repeatedly applied strains or pulis, and also to bends of a given force. The first bar fixed on the stretching machine resisted 408,230 pulls of 10 tons per square inch, while a bar of ordinary bronze broke before the strain of ]0 tons had been reached, Another bar withstood 147,850 pulls of 12½ tons per square inch. Still more favorable results have been obtained on a machine by which the test bar was bent as often as 40,000 times per day. In this instance it resisted 862,980 bends of 10 tons per square inch, while the best gun metal broke after 102,650 bends of the same force. Another bar which was being tested withstood 1~260,000 bends of 9 tons force per square inch without showing signs of weakness.