Proceedings of the fourth international conference on fluid sealing

Proceedings of the fourth international conference on fluid sealing

Wear - Book Elsevier Sequoia S.A., Lausanne - Printed in the Netherlands 305 Reviews of the Fourth International Conference on Fluid Sealing. Edi...

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Wear -


Elsevier Sequoia S.A., Lausanne - Printed in the Netherlands



of the Fourth International Conference on Fluid Sealing. Edited by A. L. King, B. S. Nau and H. S. Stephens, published by The British Hydromechanics Research Association, Cranfield, Bedford, 1970; 440 pp. Price: U.K., ~12.0.0; elsewhere: g15.o.o (U.S.A., $36.00).


This book contains the full text of the 41 papers presented, a complete record of the discussion and written contributions of the Fourth International Conference on Fluid Sealing held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., in May, 1969. The conference was jointly sponsored by the British Hydromechanics Research Association (BHRA), the American Society of Lubrication Engineers (ASLE), and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The technical papers, which form a worthwhile addition to the literature on seals and sealing, deal with reciprocating seals, elastomeric seals, thermal effects in face seals, face seal theory, face seal operation, face seal applications, viscoseals and non-contacting dynamic seals. Titles and short abstracts are given below: I. The development of elastohydrodynamic conditions in a reciprocating seal, D. Dowson and P. D. Swales (U.K.), pp. 2-10, g figs., 15 refs. Film thickness measurements from a rotating disc machine which simulates the action of a reciprocating seal showed good agreement with theory. Results obtained for seals of practical shapes have some surprising features but in general conform qualitatively to practical observations of seal behaviour. 2. Dynamic behaviour of flexible seals for reciprocating motion, F. Hirano and M. Kaneta (Japan), pp. II-20,9 figs., 7 refs. The inverse problems of hydrodynamic lubrication for reciprocating motion are dealt with assuming three typical pressure distributions as being representative of the different effects characteristic of the dynamic behaviour of the film profiles. The significance of the differential equations developed is discussed. 3. Metallic and composite seals for jack rods, R. H. Walsh, M. J. Westcott and W. G. Lidiard (U.K.), pp. 21-32, IO figs., 6 refs., 2 tables. Fluid leakage and seal friction at 3000 p.s.i. and 2ooT were measured in rig tests under cyclic conditions of metal-loaded and fibre-reinforced PTFE and metal seals of different designs. The results indicate that these materials offer good prospects of usage under conditions which would be too severe for elastomeric materials. 4. Seals for hydraulic equipment with fire resistant fluids, H. Hopp (W.Germany), pp. 33-40,20 figs. A short review of the different types of fire resistant fluids and the types of seals used with them in various industrial applications such as mining equipment, foundry equipment and machines for hot metal forming. 5. Hertzian contact and adhesion of elastomers, R. C. Drutowski (U.S.A.), pp. 52-57,8 figs., 3 refS. The contact of a hard sphere with a flat elastomer is examined both analytically and experimentally when adhesive stresses are present with the use of a transparent Wear, 16 (1970) 305-309

spherical indenter. An application of tire analysis to opaque indenters is dwcrihd. 0. A novel type of bidirectional helix seal, tile R-1, seal, G. .J. Scholten (TI,v Netherlands), pp. 58-63, 9 figs;., 4 refs. The R--L seal, a hydrodynamic-static seal which functions in eitlrer direction of rotation is descibed. Some calculations and measurements are given for an actual seal. 7. Sealing force of rubber seals and its measurement, M. W. Xston, IV. Fletcher and S. II. _Morrell(V. K.), pp. 64.-75, 17 figs., 5 refs. Three pieces of apparatus for measuring sealing force are described and results are given comparing the forces developed in Viton and ffuorosilicone products in air and in a silicone at temperatures up to 200°C. 8. Temperature of sealing lips, C. Upper (W.German~), pp. 7683, XI figs., z tables, 4 refs. The maximum temperature and the temperature distribution in radial oil seals were determined by calculation and measurement. Calculated values correspond well to measured values. Remarkable temperature differences were found between different oils; correct oil level is an important parameter. 9. The perforated Is’-ring, a new oil seal, R. ,Johansson and S. E. Malmstrom (Sweden), pp. 84-87,9 figs. A new principle of oil sealing; the limitations and possible applications of the new seal are discussed. IO. Prediction of the penetration pressure in bolted flanged joints, W. A. Quansah (Ghana), pp. 9%103,6 figs., 7 refs. An approximate elasticity solution has been used to predict the stress at the inside radius of the gasket in a bolted flanged joint. The theory makes possible prediction of the penetration pressure below which leakage is unlikely to occur. II. Evaporated cooling applied to mechanical seals, L. E. Hersey (U.S.A.), pp. roq-I&, 8 figs., I table. Cooling of mechanical seals using the heat of vaporisation of boiling water is demonstrated as a feasible system. The seal environment is only slightly changed by wide variations in temperatures and pressures, and seal wear is not excessive when using this method of cooling. 12. Temperature gradients in seal rings : a method of analysis, R. P. Robinson and R. Burton (U.K.), pp. rag-rr4,7 figs., 12 refs. A numerical method for determining temperature distribution is described and the usefulness of the results to the seal designer are discussed. x3, The relationship between ringing, heat transfer and sealing condition, H. Hirabayashi, K. Oka and H. Ishiwata (Japan), pp. 115-123, II figs., I table, 9 refs. A fundamental investigation of ringing from the viewpoints of dynamic instability, heat transfer and interfacial phenomena. The ringing or vibration of a mechanical seal is caused by the sealed liquid boiling between or near the sliding surfaces. 14. TJ~erlnollydrodyn~~mics in mechanical seals, E. Mayer (W.Germany~, pp. x4--128, 9 figs., 10 refs. ~undarnental parameters of thermod~amic mechanical seals with circular grooves and field experiences witli aooo seals and 40-50 million service hours are discussed. 15. The misaligned, eccentric face seal, %I. J. Sneck (U.S.A.), pp. 136-143, fifigs., j refs. Wcav,16

(r97u) 305-309



The analytical investrgation of a misahgned face seal shows that eccentricity will cause a component of the total leakage to be inward or outward depending on the phase angle between the eccentricity and the misalignment. I6. The eccentric face seal with a tangentially varying film thickness, H. J. Sneck (U.S.A.), pp. 145-152,3 figs., 4 refs. It is shown analytically that face seal eccentricity combined with surface waviness can contribute an inward or outward leakage component to the total leakage flow depending on the phase angle between the eccentricity and the waviness. 17, The ~lastohydrod~nanlic lubrication of high pressure face seals, C. J. Hooke and J. P. ~‘Donoghue (U.K.), pp. 153-157, IO figs., 4 refs. Design charts for the load and leakage of three seal forms of square section high pressure face seals are given for a full range of radii ratios of the seals. I$. A theoretical and experimental investigation of a mechanical seal, K. Balakrishnan and S. Kar (India), pp. r58-164,3 figs., z tables, 6 refs. Experiments were conducted to compare the leakage rate predicted by a theoretical equation developed from the basic equation of fluid mechanics using different seal material combinations. sg. Theory of the mechanism of sealing with application to face seals, D. C. Kuzma (U.S.A.), pp. 165-173~16 figs., 6 refs. A theory of the mechanism of sealing is presented and applied to a simple face seal. The results agree with many experimentally observed phenomena. 20. Measurement of leakage in mechanical face seals, J, A. Findlay (U.S.A.), pp. 174-181,x8 figs., II refs. The characteristics of mechanical face seals operating with hydrodynamic films were studied experimentally and analytically. 21. Film cavitation observations in face seals, B. S. Nau (U. K.), pp. rgo-rg8, 23 figs., I table, 7 refs. Using transparent seal faces, the cavitation of face seal films has been studied and the results provide evidence indicating the nature of seal-film lubrication processes. Angular misalignment and surface waviness are prime causes of hydrodynamic pressure generation. 22. Load support and leakage from microasperity lubricated face seals, J. N. Anno, J. A. Walowit and C. M. Allen (U.S.A.), pp. 1gg-204,9 figs., 3 refs. Observations of load support from negative and positive asperities indicate that all are comparable and generally follow the theory developed. Use of microasperities is an effective and controllable technique for obtaining hydrodynamic operation of a face seal. Use of negative asperities allows load support with almost nil breakage. 23. An investigation of the operation of mechanical face seals, F. K. Orcult (U.S.A.), pp. 205-217, 16 figs., I table, 6 refs. Some results of an investigation aimed at providing further insight into the mechanism of seal operation and the process whereby normal effective sealing breaks down and leakage occurs are presented. 24. Friction and wear characteristics of hot pressed MoSz-Ni composites in a face seal confi~ration, J. J. Kauzharich and W. E. Neuhauser (U.S.A.), pp. 218-224,~ figs., I table, zo refs. Tests were performed with composites and wear theory developed. Increasing the MO% decreased the coefficient of friction but wear was greater than for pure nickel. Wear,

16 (1970) 305-309

A large percentage of the I%& was degraded by the hot pressing operation. 25. A helium face seal application in a liquid oxygen pump, \V. .J. (‘ieslik (I’.S.A.), pp. 232-238,4 figs., 4 tables. Tests on two basically different face seal designs indicated that the overall perform-ante of the floating carbon face type seal was superior to the integral face type seal. 26. An engineering approach to the selection and application of mechanical seals, A. Lymer (U. I~.), pp. 23y--246, 9 figs., z tables, 6 refs. A method of seal selection, using the criterion of vaporisation of the liquid component between the seal faces, is described. Vapour phase seals are described as an alternative in the sealing of low sg. hydrocarbons. 27. Design and-test of an onloading gas barrier face seal, H. I’. Greiner (U.S.A.), pp. 247 -251, 7 figs. A seal design employing a gas barrier system to produce a varying unit loading on the conventional contact faces of a face seal is described. Discussion Of the geometric stability and an analysis of test results against theoretical flow yields insight into design requirements and variables affecting seal performance. 28. Shaft face seal with self acting life augmentation for advanced gas turbine engines, The

R. L. .Johnson

tables, 9 refs. requirements of shaft

and L. 1’. Ludwig

seals for advanced


gas turbine


14 figs., 2



are discussed.

Proposed advanced systems using seals with self acting lift pads are described. zg. Aircraft gas turbine mainshaft face seals-problems and promises, A. H. McKibbin and A. J. Parks (U.S.A.), pp. 262269,9 figs., I table, 8 refs. A review of the current practice of face seals in aircraft gas turbine compartments, research carried out and research required. 30. Review of dynamic seal literature (U.S.A.), pp. 270-281, 145 refs. Review of specific areas by various authors

through covers

x967, edited by T. H. Koenig the field of dynamic

face seals

through 1967 and includes source material prior to 1965. 31. Numerical solution for the flow and pressure fields in an idealised spiral groove pumping seal, J. Zuk and H. E. Renkel (U.S.A.), pp. 282-310, 20 figs., 20 refs. A spiral-grooved pumping seal model is formulated for laminar, incompressible flow for the limiting case of zero land clearance, and the numerical solution is compared with those from classical models. The solutions and findings are discussed. 32. On gas ingestion and fluid inertia effects in viscoseals, C. F. Fisher and W. K. Stair (U.S.A.), pp. 302-310, IO figs., I table, 26 refs. Results of a study of a dynamic gas-liquid interface between rotating cylinders to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of gas ingestion are presented. It appears that gas ingestion in viscoseals is a naturally occurring phenomenon which cannot be eliminated by optimisation of the geometry but which can be avoided only by imposing limitations on shaft speeds. 33. Theoretical analysis of spiral-grooved screw seal for turbulent operation, J. H. Vohr and C. Y. Chow (U.S.A.), pp. 311-322, 15 figs., 17 refs. An analysis is described and results of its application to concentric, eccentric and misaligned screw seals are presented. 34. Preliminary experiments with the visco-seal pump concept in turbulence, Wpav, 16 (1970) x05-309



E. R. Taylor (U.S.A.), pp. 323-330,12 figs., 2 tables, 7 refs. A visco-seal pump concepted design, the use of the theory based on a static sealant and the method of testing are presented with the results and evaluation. 35. Visco-type gas sealing, J. W. Hodgson and M. W. Milligan (U.S.A.), pp, 33x-334,8 figs., 5 refs. An analytical and experimental investigation of the performance of visco-type gas seals operating in the continuum flow regime is presented. Experimental values of the sealing coefficient agree with a laminar flow analysis within experimental error. 36. The development of a three stage screw type labyrinth seal, A. I. Golubiev, pp. 348-350~5 figs., 4 refs. A hydraulic theory was applied to the design of the seal tests which confirmed the possibility of using such seals for shafts, rotating at high speeds. 37, Combined hydrostatic and hydrodynamic principles applied to non-contacting face seals, J. F. Gardiner (U.S.A.), pp. 35x-360,26 figs., 3 refs. The paper deals with a combined method of achieving non-contacting seal operation. A complete programme was used to design curved face gap seals for both gas and water, and the calculated values of pressure distribution analysis, etc., agree with laboratory data. 38. Externally pressurised barrier shaft seals, H. K. Miiller (W.Germany), pp. 361-371,17 figs., z tables, 16 refs. Design directive and analysis is presented for seal geometries which are expected to have minimum distortion from both pressure and thermal stresses. A new design of barrier seal with self-regulating baffle fluid pressure is discussed. 39. An analysis of self-energised hydrostatic shaft seals, M. L. Adams and R. J. Colsher (U.S.A.), pp. 372-381, II figs., I table, 4 refs. An analysis of a self-energised hydrostatic shaft seal operating with incompressible fluid in the laminar regime is presented. The design curves developed make design optimisation an easy process. 40. Further experiments on the hydrodynamic disc seal, M. T. Thew (U.K.), pp. 382-39513 figs., z tables, 18 refs. A form of centrifugal seal for application to rotating shafts and experimental results are discussed. 41. Development of a liquid dynamic seal to vacuum, E. Schnetzer and R. J. Rossbach (U.S.A.), pp. 396-405,22 figs., 2 tables, 4refs. The experimental development of a shaft dynamic seal with a liquid trap for sealing from a moderate liquid pressure to a vacuum and test results are presented. Wear, I6 (1970) 305-309

Safety and Failure of Components Proc.IP&.deco.Eqys., 184, Pt. 3B (1969~70); 272 pp. Price: $15. This volume contains the full proceedings of a conference on the Safety and Failure of Components, sponsored by the Automobile Division and the Applied Mechanics, Nuclear Energy and Steam Plant Groups of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, held at the University of Sussex in September 1969. [email protected]’,16