Recent progress of computer application on biotechnology

Recent progress of computer application on biotechnology

Journal of Biotechnology, 24 (1992)vii-viii vii © 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved 0168-1656/92/$05.00 Editorial Recent p...

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Journal of Biotechnology, 24 (1992)vii-viii

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© 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved 0168-1656/92/$05.00

Editorial

Recent progress of computer application on biotechnology This special issue is a collection of papers presented at a workshop held at the 1990 Annual Conference of the Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry, Fukuoka, Japan, 30 March to 2 April 1990. The workshop was organized by the conference committee as one of a series of workshops to consider recent developments and progress in bioscience, biotechnology and agrochemistry in Japan. Six speakers were invited to the workshop Biotechnology and Computer Recent topics, and presented comprehensive and systematic reviews of the development of their research and recent progress. Therefore, the papers in this issue are not original papers. In the first paper, Takeshi Yamakawa, Department of Computer Science and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, talked about "a fuzzy logic controller suitable for biochemistry". He demonstrated the application of a fuzzy inference to the bioindustry. It should be possible to achieve the sophisticated control equivalent to a human expert by representing the mechanisms of a fermentation of IF--THEN rules including fuzzy language rather than differential equations. Toshiomi Yoshida, International Center of Cooperative Research in Biotechnology, Osaka University, presented "the way to adequate control of the microbial process via real-time diagnosis". In his work, artificial intelligence techniques were applied to develop control algorithms for optimum control of fermentation processes. The structure of a system was recognized by applying concept of fuzzy set and expert rules at a high level. "Development of on-line sensoring and computer aided control system for sake brewing" was presented by Kaoru Oishi, Research Institute, Gekkeikan Sake Co., Ltd. The sake (Japanese rice wine) production process is quite complex, and its technology has been established on the experience of brewing experts during its long history. To brew the desired quality sake, it is necessary to be fully aware of the characteristics of each component part of the process and integrate them into a whole. Sensory evaluation during brewing affects sake quality. Skilled experts are very important to sake brewing, but recently the lack of such experts has become a serious problem. The authors studied the development of software systems for the control of the sake brewing process. This included the development of an on-line sensoring system for density and alcohol concentration, applications of an adaptive control system, and the application of a fuzzy control system. Isao Endo, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, and his

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group demonstrated "fuzzy reasoning system for fault diagnosis of physiological activities in a fermentation process" in the fourth paper. They developed an expert system for fault diagnosis in a bioreaction process based on the physiological activities of Lactobacillus casei. Malfunctions are detected by comparing the calculated values of specific rates with referred data stored in a database which represents the organism's physiological activities. Fuzzy sets are defined by several membership functions on values of process valuables including specific rates. This system was implemented in Smalltalk/V on Mackintosh II, and the knowledge for fault diagnosis is represented by a network of objects. "Computer simulation for L-lactate batch fermentation employing Lactococcus lactis IO-l" by Ayaaki Ishizaki, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyushu University, showed that batch culture time course can be drawn by computer using a mathematical model based on uncompetitive enzyme inhibition kinetics. This paper also showed that the calculated and observed results agreed fairly well so that the computer can forecast the batch culture time course for specified initial conditions. Masahiro Okamoto, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Science, Kyushu Institute of Technology, presented "biochemical switching device: biomimetic approach and application to neural network study". In this paper, he showed that the effect of an excitatory stimulus on the switching properties of the proposed system could be examined with computer simulations. With deepest gratitude, we thank Mr. Ir. Adriaan Klinkenberg, Biochemical Division, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. for agreeing to this issue. With great pleasure, we acknowledge the impeccable editorial work of Dr. Arthur Koedam and Mrs. Ingrid van de Stadt of Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam. Ayaaki Ishizaki Kyushu Unit,ersity, Fukuoka, Japan