Journal of Energy Storage 27 (2020) 101155
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Journal of Energy Storage journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/est
Research progress on power battery cooling technology for electric vehicles ⁎
Mengyao Lu, Xuelai Zhang , Jun Ji, Xiaofeng Xu, Yongyichuan Zhang Institute of Cold Storage Technology, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550 lingang avenue, pudong new area, Shanghai 201306, China
A R T I C LE I N FO
A B S T R A C T
Keywords: New energy vehicles Power battery Battery thermal management system Power battery cooling technology
In the charging and discharging process of new energy vehicles, how to maintain power battery within optimum operating temperature range, reduce the peak temperature and temperature diﬀerence, which is a problem needs to be paid attention to. Proper cooling technology can reduce the negative inﬂuence of temperature on battery pack, eﬀectively improve power battery eﬃciency, improve the safety in use, reduce the aging rate, and extend its service life. In this context, several battery thermal management systems(BTMS) are reviewed, including air cooling BTMS, liquid cooling BTMS and refrigerant direct cooling BTMS in traditional battery thermal management system; phase change material-based BTMS, heat pipe-based BTMS and thermoelectric element-based BTMS in new battery thermal management system. In order to reduce negative inﬂuence of excessive temperature on the battery pack, and to seek feasible solutions for BTMS in future development, the above six power battery cooling technologies are discussed. Summarize the research emphases and research progress of diﬀerent BTMS at present. Objectively evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each BTMS. Considering actual working conditions, the installation feasibility, as well as economic beneﬁts of each BTMS, then discuss proper solutions, and predict future development trends reasonably. Finally, analyze and discuss the diﬀerences and gaps between traditional and new BTMS. Providing a reference for designing the best BYMS solution. Ensuring the battery is in the optimum operating temperature range, maintain the BTMS stable operation, and improve battery conversion eﬃciency, providing valuable solutions for the BTMS research in the future.
1. Introduction Traditional vehicles not only consume a large amount of petroleum resources, but also solid suspended particles, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides contained in automobile exhaust, that are main causes for environmental pollution aggravation. In the context of fossil fuels shortage, automobile exhaust excessive emissions, and environmental degradation, the development of new energy vehicles can eﬀectively solve the above problems [1–8]. Based on the advantages of environmental protection, high eﬃciency, harmlessness and sustainable endurance, electric vehicles have the most development prospects [9–15]. At present, the main power batteries are nickel-hydrogen battery, fuel battery, and lithium-ion battery. In practical applications, lithiumion batteries have the advantages of high energy density , high power factor [17,18], long cycle life , low self-discharge rate , good stability , no memory eﬀect [21,22] and so on, it is currently the power battery pack widely used in new energy vehicles. M.S.Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium-ion batteries, and the successful development of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles greatly promoted the new energy electric vehicles development. ⁎
Lithium ion batteries come in diﬀerent shapes and conﬁgurations, such as cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch, etc. . The pouch lithium-ion battery is widely used in electric vehicles because of its light weight, good safety and low electrical resistance [24,25]. For high charge/ discharge rates, the temperature diﬀerence between surface and central layer of the pouch battery is not obvious, so pouch battery is suitable for developing thermal management system and temperature control . Cylindrical lithium-ion batteries are widely used as power sources for electric vehicles due to their compact size and high power density . The key to improving cooling performance of a cylindrical battery is to increase the contact area between the battery and the cooling medium . Prismatic battery can provide greater capacity than cylindrical battery [29,30]. Because it even have a higher volume/energy density, and can accommodate a suﬃcient amount of electrode material, the contact area with the cooling medium is larger. Therefore, such batteries are increasingly attractive for the development of electric vehicles with high energy and high speed [31,32]. Electric vehicles are constantly pursuing the goals of high operating performance, lighter weight, and good thermal performance. It is expected that prismatic lithium-ion batteries will be more favored by electric vehicles. However, lithium-ion battery is a temperature-sensitive device ,
Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected]
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2019.101155 Received 17 September 2019; Received in revised form 22 November 2019; Accepted 14 December 2019 2352-152X/ © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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[78,79]. Many studies have focused on PCM-based battery thermal management systems, explored the PCM thermomechanical properties and methods to enhance heat transfer [80,81].This paper summarized the common lithium-ion battery thermal management, which is the air, liquid, and refrigerant in the traditional BTMS, and the heat pipe, PCM, and thermoelectric elements in the new BTMS. Figuring out the research emphases and development status of diﬀerent BTMS at this stage. Considering the existing cooling technology composition principle, cooling eﬀects, feasibility of installation, energy consumption, and other multiple factors, analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these BTMS in detail. Find eﬀective solutions and make sound predictions about the BTMS in the future development. This paper also analyzes and discusses the diﬀerence or gap between traditional and new BTMS. Exploring the opportunities and challenges that may be faced in improving the BTMS cooling performance, and predicting the BTMS development direction in the future.
whose performance, lifetime and safety are very sensitive to temperature. Therefore, temperature is the most prominent factor aﬀecting lithium-ion batteries performance [34,35]. Due to the characteristics of lithium-ion battery itself, the suitable operating temperature range is relatively narrow. The optimum operating temperature is between 20–40 ℃, and the temperature diﬀerence between battery cells should be less than 5 ℃ [36–40]. Too high or too low temperature will aﬀect the battery performance, and pose a signiﬁcant safety hazard . Temperature rise is usually related to the charge and discharge process. When internal temperature of the battery pack continues to rise and heat cannot be dissipated in time, the temperature exceeding 80℃ will cause thermal runaway . Thermal runaway is often accompanied by harmful gases generation, smoke, ﬁre, and even explosions [43–45]. Motloch  mentioned that for every 1 ℃ increase in the temperature range of 30–40 ℃, the life of lithium-ion batteries will be reduced by about two months. When the temperature exceeds the limit operating temperature, it will accelerate lithium-ion batteries aging . Low temperature will reduce the battery discharge capacity. When charging at high rate and low temperature, lithium plating occurs [48,49], which shortens battery life and causes safety problems. In addition, the temperature diﬀerence between internal and ambient temperature, as well as the temperature diﬀerence between battery cells inside the battery pack, all these reasons will have negative inﬂuence on battery performance, lifetime and safety. In general studies, optimizing the battery cells internal structure and layout, setting BTMS stabilized the battery pack temperature and distribute the heat evenly [50–59]. Xia  studied existing solution about battery thermal management from battery cell level and battery pack level, respectively. At the battery cell level, the battery thermal behavior, including heat generation, heat transfer methods and thermal boundary conditions, was studied; while at the battery pack level, various BTMS were studied. This paper focuses on battery-level cooling system, because the temperature rise due to the battery heat generation is the most important thing to be taken attention to, except for the initial operation in a low temperature ambient environment. In order to solve the adverse eﬀects of temperature on the battery, it is ﬁrst necessary to understand the heat generation process and to ﬁgure out the heat distribution in the battery [61,62]. Real-time prediction of battery core temperature and terminal voltage is critical for accurate solutions for battery thermal management. Accurate and fast prediction of the battery pack thermal behavior is particularly critical for BTMS [63,64]. Most of the models mentioned in the study are coupled thermal model and electrochemical model. Thermal model is realized by diﬀerent methods such as ﬁnite element model (FEM) [65–67], lumped parameter model (LPM) [68,69], computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) model [70,71], linear parameter variation (LPV) model  or partial diﬀerential equation (PDE) model . The electrochemical model can simulate battery temperature proﬁle under various operating conditions, cooling rates, or geometries. Farag  developed a combined model consisting of an electrochemical model, a heat generation model, and a thermal model, which can accurately display the battery terminal voltage and predict battery core temperature under various operating conditions. Chen  established an electrochemicalthermodynamic coupling model for lithium-ion battery, and obtained the trend of electrolyte concentration distribution and the law of current density distribution. Ghalkhani  simulated the current density with a 3-D model, and estimated the energy density and temperature distribution inside the battery. It was found that the uneven temperature distribution between the batteries was related to the battery heat generation rate. According to relevant research, reasonable battery thermal management system is particularly important for improving the lithium-ion battery packs thermal performance . In the past, research will paid more attention to the development of the battery pack itself, and the study of thermal behavior, then brieﬂy reviewed and classiﬁed the battery thermal management system according to the cooling medium
2. Traditional battery thermal management cooling system 2.1. Air-cooling battery thermal management system Air-cooling battery thermal management systems can be simply classiﬁed according to diﬀerent air sources, one is an air-cooling system that uses only external air, while the other uses pre-conditioned cabin air for battery cooling systems. Considering diﬀerent cooling requirements for cabin and battery pack, there is another battery thermal management system, which uses a second evaporator to especially cool battery, the principle is shown in Fig. 1. The three air cooling systems mentioned above are already used in commercial vehicles. Relevant researchers have done a lot of simulation and experimental research. Battery thermal management system was further studied by establishing diﬀerent 3D thermal models [82–84], combined with airﬂow resistance model and mathematical model, which further improve theoretical study of air-cooling systems; Experimental research on the air ﬂow characteristics, battery layout, cooling channel size, etc., and continuously explore optimization solutions for air-cooling BTMS, so that the air-cooling BTMS can better adapt to market demand. The cooling performance of this BTMS is directly aﬀected by the air ﬂow state, and parameters reﬂecting the air ﬂow state include airﬂow path, airﬂow velocity, ﬂow rate, etc. Na  studied compared reverse stratiﬁed airﬂow and unidirectional airﬂow temperature distribution, as shown in Fig. 2. The results showed that reverse airﬂow can signiﬁcantly improve battery pack temperature uniformity, reduce overall maximum temperature diﬀerence and maximum average temperature diﬀerence. Reverse stratiﬁed airﬂow reduced the maximum average temperature diﬀerence by 1.1 °C. Figs. 3(a) and (b) showed the battery temperature distribution, when it is discharged at a 3C rate and a 2 m / s ﬂow velocity, set reverse stratiﬁed air ﬂow, with or without rectiﬁer grid. The results showed that rectiﬁer grid improve battery pack temperature uniformity, maximum temperature decreased by 0.5 ℃ and average temperature decreased by 2.7 ℃. Li  proposed a BTMS that uses double silica cooling plate
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of an air-cooling BTMS with an independent battery "HVAC module". 2
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Fig. 2. Battery pack temperature distribution of unidirectional airﬂow (UDAF) and reverse stratiﬁed airﬂow (RLAF) at 3C discharge (airﬂow velocity is 2 m /s).
maximum temperature and maximum temperature diﬀerence of the battery. At the same time, using a reciprocating airﬂow is very helpful to improve the temperature uniformity. Another important factor aﬀecting cooling performance is the battery layout. Many studies have improved the cooling performance of air-cooling BTMS by ﬁnding the best battery layout. Chen  changed the spacing between battery cells, proposed an optimal solution for the battery structure under constant heat rate, which improved the performance of parallel air cooling. The optimized BTMS cooling performance is improved signiﬁcantly, the maximum temperature of the battery pack is reduced slightly after optimization, and the maximum temperature diﬀerence is reduced by 42%. Kai Chen  used the ﬂow resistance network model, and established an air-cooled BTMS test system, the experimental testing platform is shown in Fig. 4.Proposing an optimization solution for battery spacing, and it was found that this method signiﬁcantly improved cooling eﬃciency of BTMS. Compared it with original BTMS, maximum temperature of optimized battery pack is reduced by about 4.0 K, and maximum temperature diﬀerence of battery is reduced by more than 69% at diﬀerent inlet rates. Then compared it with general optimized BTMS, this method can optimize the maximum battery temperature diﬀerence by more than 25%. The two
coupled with copper mesh as the air cooling system. Investigating its cooling capacity, it was found that the maximum temperature of the battery rate decreased as the air velocity increases during the 5C discharge. And when using a silicon cooling plate with a thickness of 1.5 mm and a wind velocity of 3.5 m/s, it showed a good performance. Saw  analyzed the air cooling BTMS of a battery pack composed of 38,120 cells, demonstrated that an increase in cooling air ﬂow would result in an increase in heat transfer coeﬃcient and pressure drop. Mahamud  used a reciprocating airﬂow to cool the battery, and found that the reciprocating airﬂow have a good inﬂuence on increasing temperature uniformity and reducing the maximum temperature. E  studied diﬀerent air cooling solutions by changing the relative positions of airﬂow inlet and outlet, and using baﬄes to improve airﬂow distribution, which is helpful for improving the battery pack cooling performance. Hong  discussed the inﬂuence of inlet temperature and heating rate on battery temperature. It was found that the temperature rise and temperature change of the battery pack were independent of the inlet temperature, but proportional to the battery heating rate. Therefore, when designing the air cooling BTMS, it is particularly important to set the airﬂow velocity and air ﬂow properly. The position of the auxiliary air vents can also eﬀectively reduce the
Fig. 3. (a) Without the rectiﬁcation grid (b) with the rectiﬁer grids, both battery pack temperature distribution when 3C discharge, 2 m/s airﬂow velocity. 3
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Fig. 4. Air-cooling BTMS test system.
passage. Z.Lu  conducted forced air cooling on high-density battery box, exploring air-cooling capacity of the battery box under diﬀerent ﬂow rates and diﬀerent air volumes. It is found that with the increase of cooling passage size, the maximum temperature decreased gradually, but the cooling degree gradually decreases. Chen  signiﬁcantly improved the cooling eﬃciency of a U-ﬂow parallel air-cooling BTMS by optimizing the width of the airﬂow inlet and outlet. When the optimized battery pack is discharged at a 5C rate, the temperature difference between the battery cells is reduced by 70%, and the power consumption is reduced by 32%. The eﬀect of using this method is more pronounced than the previously mentioned by changing the battery spacing. For ﬂat-plate battery stacks with the same channel size and the same cell volume ratio, Xun  changed the cooling channel size and the number of cooling channels resulted in similar volume averaged temperatures of the stacks. It was also found that increasing the cooling channel size can improve the cooling eﬃciency, but it will cause uneven temperature distribution inside the battery unit. Therefore, when setting the cooling channel, the size of the channel should be properly set. In addition to the above-mentioned optimization solutions for
solutions mentioned above have been compared here, and found that the latter solution is more eﬀective, and the cooling performance is greatly improved. Wang  discussed the battery module thermal performance under diﬀerent battery cell arrangement structures, including rectangular, hexagonal, and circular. Finally, considering comprehensive cost factor, the 5 × 5 cubic structure has the best cooling capacity; When space utilization is taken into account, the 19 batteries arranged in a hexagonal structure have the best cooling capacity. Fan  designed a battery pack composed of 32 high-energy-density cylindrical lithiumion batteries, which are arranged in a neatly, staggered and crossed way, the model is shown in Fig. 5. A series of evaluation parameters were set to compare the air cooling performance and energy eﬃciency of diﬀerent battery packs arrays at diﬀerent intake velocity. The results showed neatly arranged battery pack has the best cooling performance and temperature uniformity, followed by staggered arrangement and ﬁnally cross arrangement. The neatly arranged power consumption is the lowest, 23% lower than cross-arranged power consumption. It was found that the cooling performance of thermal management system can be improved by optimizing the geometric size of airﬂow
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic diagram of aligned, staggered and cross-arranged battery packs; (b) Structural projection of three arranged battery packs. 4
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temperature and temperature diﬀerence of the cooling plate is the minimum. Many breakthroughs have been made in the studying cooling performance of liquid cooling BTMS from the ﬂow passage geometry and ﬂuid ﬂow distribution. Zhao  proposed a cylindrical battery cooling method based on microchannel liquid cooling cylinder. When the number of microchannels is not less than 4 and inlet mass ﬂow rate is controlled at 1103 kg/s, the maximum temperature of battery module can be controlled below 40 °C. As the microchannels number in the LCC increases, maximum temperature decreases gradually, but the channels number should not exceed 8. K. Li  designed an eﬃcient microchannel cooling system and optimized it from four objectives, including (1) minimizing temperature diﬀerence, (2) minimizing standard temperature diﬀerence, (3) minimizing pressure drop across cold plates, (4) minimizing battery pack size. The experimental results showed that the optimized battery pack temperature diﬀerence was reduced by 5.07%, the standard temperature diﬀerence was reduced by 0.82%, and the pressure drop was reduced by 44.53%. K.Darcovich  studied the liquid cooling methods integrating diﬀerent cooling plate devices, one integrated ice tray and the other integrated cold plate. Comparing the two cooling performances, it was found that the cooling performance of the integrated ice tray was better. However, the integrated cold plate is less complicated and cost-eﬀective, and the coolant circulation rate is higher. Cao  found that ﬂow distribution determines thermal uniformity between battery modules, and adjusting coolant channel manifold allows an ideal ﬂow distribution. They proposed a solution to change manifold using a T-joint, and compared it with the original channel manifold battery pack. The battery pack three-dimensional temperature distribution is shown in Fig. 7, when it was discharged at 1C and coolant ﬂow rate was 18 L/min. It was found that, with 2C discharge, ﬂow 36 L/min, the working temperature and thermal uniformity can be kept in appropriate temperature range, the maximum temperature is maintained at 312 K and the temperature diﬀerence is maintained at 11 K. The research on existing liquid cooling BTMS is more focused on reducing the battery peak temperature, but insuﬃcient on the temperature diﬀerence of the battery cells. However, the temperature difference is equally important and challenging for the battery thermal performance. In future studies, attention should be paid to analyzing the standard temperature diﬀerence of the battery cells, and exploring an eﬀective liquid cooling solution for reducing battery pack temperature diﬀerence.
airﬂow characteristics, battery layout, airﬂow passage size, there are a large number of studies starting from setting up thermal models to study heating characteristics of battery itself, providing basis for air cooling and thermal management system. Choi  provided a proper thermal model for predicting the thermal performance of air-cooling BTMS, estimated the coolant air ﬂow and passage size, which gives a guideline to the early design phase of the battery system. Forgez  established a lumped parameter thermal model for a cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite lithium-ion battery, which can simulate the internal temperature of the battery according to the measured current and voltage, and be applied in the BTMS design. Inui  developed twodimensional and three-dimensional simulation codes for temperature distribution transient response in lithium-ion secondary batteries in a discharge cycle. Then analyze the relationship between the battery cross section and the temperature rise during discharge. The thermal model established by Zhu  established a thermal model to accurately predict the heating, heat dissipation and temperature rise of battery cells. These methods of establishing thermal models provide reasonable support for developing a thermal management system. 2.2. Liquid cooling battery thermal management system Liquid cooling system is considered to be an eﬀective cooling method, which can control the battery maximum temperature and the temperature diﬀerence between battery cells within a reasonable range, and extend the cycle life. Liquid cooling system can be divided into direct contact mode and indirect contact mode according to whether the battery surface is in direct contact with cooling liquid [102,103]. According to diﬀerent control solution of the system, it can be divided into active cooling and passive cooling . In the liquid cooling system, the passive cooling has low cooling eﬃciency and poor control on temperature, and is only suitable for battery packs with low power. Not only are more and more experiments interested in active cooling, but in practice, many automotive companies, such as Tesla, General Motors and other automotive companies also use active liquid cooling systems. At present, domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of numerical simulation and experimental research on this cooling method, in order to ﬁnd a high-performance, low-cost liquid cooling method that meet the needs of market. In recent years, exploring cooling plates types, passage geometry, ﬂuid ﬂow distribution, etc. [105–108] is the research emphasis of liquid cooling systems. Considering the battery structure, exploring appropriate type of cooling plate is an eﬀective method to improve the cooling performance. Deng  found that the cooling plate was suitable for square and pouch batteries, and can also be used as a jacket for cylindrical batteries. Wang  designed and developed a new liquid cooling solution, which based on thermal silica gel plates to overcome the large amount of heat generated by high-capacity batteries under high temperature and rapid charging/discharging conditions. Combining the good thermal conductivity of silica gel plates with excellent cooling of water, resulting in a feasible and eﬀective composite liquid cooling system. As a result, it was found that when the water ﬂow rate was increased to 4 ml/s, the maximum temperature was lowered to 48.7 ℃, the temperature diﬀerence was kept within 5 ℃, and the pump energy consumption only accounts for 1.37% of the total energy. The designed composite liquid cooling system provides a new idea for liquid cooling systems. Jiaqiang E  proposed a BTMS using rectangular channels and cold plates. Set the circulating liquid passage as a rectangle, which between two cooling plates, and battery is sandwiched between two cooling plates, next group cooling channel is set on the other side of the cooling plate, as shown in Fig. 6. It was found in the experiment that the number of channels and refrigerant ﬂow have a great inﬂuence on heat dissipation, which are the main inﬂuencing factors. Height and width of channels are secondary factors. When channel width is 45 mm, channel height is 5 mm, the number of channels is 4, and the coolant ﬂow rate is 0.07 m/s, the average
2.3. Refrigerant direct cooling battery thermal management system This refrigerant direct cooling thermal management system is not widely used in electric vehicles. It requires few components, which can eﬀectively reduce vehicle weight, achieve high temperature cooling and improve vehicle speciﬁc energy and economy [116,117]. It is a very promising battery thermal management system. The BTMS directly integrates the battery cooling system into an existing vapor compression cycle, and the battery is directly connected to the evaporator plate without the additional condensers, heat exchangers and coolant exchange circuits. The system principle is shown in Fig. 8. In practical applications, the refrigerant direct cooling BTMS achieves cooling by installing a microchannel heat sink on the top and bottom of the battery module, as shown in Fig. 9. Park  established a numerical model, analyzed the inﬂuence of refrigerant temperature and mass ﬂow on refrigerant BTMS cooling performance, and compared the refrigerant BTMS with PCM BTMS. It was found that active refrigerant cooling BTMS has better cooling performance than passive BTMS based on PCM during the charge and discharge cycle operation. This active cooling BTMS enables refrigerant recycling and extend BTMS service life. At present, the refrigerant type, refrigerant ﬂow rate, contact area and cooling performance are the direct factors that aﬀect refrigerant 5
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Fig. 6. Liquid-cooled battery thermal management model using rectangular ﬂow channels and cold plates.
pack temperature automatically. The results showed that optimizing refrigerant circuit can reduce the temperature non-uniformity of the battery. The optimized battery pack was tested with discharge rates of 0.5 C, 1 C, and 1.5 C, respectively, and it was found that the battery pack temperature diﬀerence was less than 4 °C. At this stage, the refrigerant direct cooling BTMS must face the problems in practical application when investing in a wide range of engineering applications, including how to choose a proper refrigerant, improve the performance of refrigerant, solve the safety problems caused by overheating, and improve the ﬁre protection function of battery thermal management technology. Combined with the automatic control system, the eﬃciency of refrigerant can be eﬀectively improved. The application of temperature control system and refrigerant ﬂow control system in the refrigerant direct cooling BTMS will become the key for the cooling method to adapt to future development.
direct cooling system performance, and are also the main content of the current research. Maan  studied the inﬂuence of the height change of R134a refrigerant pool on battery thermal performance. Cooling eﬀect decreased with battery liquid covered area increase. When 100% of the battery surface is submerged in liquid R134a, the system is able to limit battery temperature rise to 1.6 °C. When 20% of the battery is covered by liquid, the maximum temperature diﬀerence between battery cells is 7 °C, and 40% of the battery is covered with liquid this system can maintain the battery maximum temperature below 30 °C. At the same time, we must also consider the safety issues, considering the limitations of refrigerant direct BTMS to explore a new BTMS. In order to prevent the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries eﬀectively, Kritzer  used CO2 as a refrigerant to meet the requirements of emergency cooling, and then eﬀectively switched the high-power lithium ion battery in critical overcharge state to a safe level. Cen  studied a new BTMS. This system is equipped with two electronic expansion valves, and uses the control software to control the battery
Fig. 7. Three-dimensional temperature distribution of two diﬀerent channel manifolds (a) Original manifold (b) T-joint improved manifold. 6
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3. New battery thermal management cooling system 3.1. Phase change material-based cooling battery thermal management system 3.1.1. Application of phase change materials Due to its high latent heat, good thermal storage and cold storage capacity, phase change materials are widely used in various ﬁelds of energy storage and temperature control [122–124]. According to phase change form, phase change materials can be divided into four types: solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-vapor, and liquid-vapor. Among them, solid-vapor and liquid-vapor phase change forms have a large volume change before and after the phase change. The phase change materials of solid-vapor and liquid-vapor phase deformation are due to their phase transition. which aﬀects energy storage system stability and is still unable to be put into practical application at present; According to diﬀerent phase transition temperature range, phase change materials can be divided into low temperature phase change materials (−50 ℃ −90 ℃), medium temperature phase change materials (90 ℃ −550 ℃) and high temperature phase change materials (>550 ℃), among which low-temperature phase change materials are widely used in daily life energy and building energy utilization; Another classiﬁcation is classiﬁed according to the chemical composition of PCM, which is divided into organic phase change materials (mainly including paraﬃn, fatty acids, esters, polyols, etc.), inorganic phase change materials (mainly including molten salts, crystalline hydrated salts and alloys), composite phase change materials (binary or multi-component composite phase change materials), Table 2 is a common classiﬁcation for phase change materials and their property comparison. PCM is small in size, low in cost, high in energy storage density, and has obvious energy-saving eﬀects. It plays an important role in power shifting peak, waste heat recovery, solar energy storage, building energy conservation, cold chain logistics and other energy utilization. At the same time, PCM absorbs and releases a large amount of heat during the phase transition process, realizing the temperature control of surrounding environment. Compared with traditional temperature control technologies such as active air cooling and circulating liquid cooling, PCM-based temperature control technology has better temperature control eﬀect, and also has environmentally friendly, high-eﬃciency and green characteristics [125,126]. In recent years, many research have found, the superiority of PCM-based temperature control technology become more and more prominent. It is used in electric vehicle battery thermal management system. And it does not need to consume other energy when it is working, which cannot be surpassed by other traditional thermal management technologies.3.1.2 PCM-based cooling battery thermal management system Compared with traditional thermal management methods such as air cooling and liquid cooling, the research on applying phase change materials to battery thermal management system started late. However, PCM battery thermal management system has broad application prospects and outstanding comprehensive performance. Many related scholars have made in-depth research on this technology. Al Hallaj
Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of direct refrigerant cooling system.
2.4. Application and development for traditional battery thermal management system There are three traditional battery thermal management systems, including air cooling BTMS, liquid cooling BTMS and refrigerant direct cooling BTMS, are described above. In the laboratory, this paper summarizes the research emphases of each BTMS. Referring to the research in recent years, this paper also proposes problems that may be faced when improving the BTMS cooling performance, and introduces several new cooling methods to provide new ideas for improving the BTMS cooling performance. Although the traditional BTMS appeared earlier than the new BTMS, the advantages of traditional BTMS still have reference value for the BTMS development. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of BTMS, and propose solutions and development directions with reference to diﬀerent kinds of BTMS characteristics, as shown in Table 1. It can be seen that in the future development, BTMS not only faces challenges, but also has opportunities that cannot be ignored. The active air-cooling system is equipped with fans, which will increase the power consumption, the cost, and generate noise. The aircooling BTMS can be applied to electric vehicles with low energy density and low comfort requirements, such as vehicles with short operating hours. The liquid cooling BTMS is a promising cooling method, but it is very sensitive to the problem of liquid leakage. It needs high attention during design. When packaging, it should choose the right packaging material and seal layer. Moreover, the layout of active liquid cooling system is complex and the package is too heavy. Microchannel technology can solve this problem. In the future, the refrigerant direct cooling system can be combined with temperature control system and ﬂow control system to optimize the refrigerant ﬂow control solution.
Fig. 9. refrigerant cooling thermal management system diagram. 7
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Table 1 Summary for Traditional battery thermal management cooling system. Cooling method
Solution and Development direction
The system design is relatively simple, easy to implement, can adapt to various battery, without problems such as liquid leakage.
1.Low air heat capacity, small thermal conductivity, poor average temperature eﬀect between batteries. 2. Systems with high cooling requirements need large amounts of air, the system is too bulky. It requires a high level for pipe size and quantity. 3. Natural convection cooling is only eﬀective for low energy density batteries. 4. Active air-cooling system is equipped fans to increase heat transfer, but at an increased cost, generate a lot of noise and aﬀect car comfort.
Liquid has higher speciﬁc heat capacity, mass ﬂow rate, and faster heat transfer rate. Commonly used cooling media such as water, ethylene glycol, oil and acetone, have better cooling eﬀect and can achieve uniform temperature distribution.
1.Complex layout, large system weight, high cost 2.This system has high sealing requirements for battery pack, and a sealing layer is needed to increase heat transfer resistance and reduce cooling eﬃciency.
Direct refrigerant cooling
1.Cooling by using the existing air conditioning system in the car: the system is compact to reduces the structural weight. 2.Cooling battery pack by separately use compressor circulating refrigeration system: battery thermal management system and air conditioning refrigeration system in cabin are independent of each other, and can operate independently.
1.Refrigeration system compressor heat dissipation tasks increase, increasing displacement and costs. 2. In vehicle actual operation, the refrigerant should be diverted according to the actual heat dissipation. The speciﬁc diversion situation is diﬃcult to give consideration to both evaporators.
1. Eﬀective measures to enhance air cooling system eﬃciency are to increase air volume, improve ﬂow rate, increase channel size, and optimize cell position. 2. The above parameters have a certain limit, ﬁnding optimal parameters is the key to make breakthrough in the future development. 3. Fully considering the practical working environment and the use of electric vehicles, the air-cooling system is suitable for electric vehicle battery packs with low energy density and low incar comfort requirements, such as vehicles with short-time work tasks and unmanned vehicles. 1.Control circulating liquid ﬂow rate in the liquid pump, which can reduce energy consumption and improve work eﬃciency. Combining refrigeration cycle system with automatic control system is the key to this technology future development. 2. Nanoﬂuids, liquid metals and boiling liquids should be further studied in the future to reduce the cost of liquid cooling systems. 1. Coil tube or cold plate is arranged inside the battery pack as evaporator. It is required that battery pack has good airtightness, no air is allowed inside, and condensation water should be avoided during use. 2. Combining with temperature control system and ﬂow control system, optimizing refrigerant ﬂow control strategy becomes the key technology in future.
Table 2 Classiﬁcation of common phase change materials and comparison of their properties. Kind
Melting point /℃
Latent heat/J g−1
Inorganic phase change materials
LiCIO3•3H2O CaCl•6H2O H3PO4 LiNO3•2H2O LiNO3•3H2O NaSO4•10H2O Na2HPO4•10H2O Na2S2O3•5H2O Na(CH3COO)•3H2O Ba(OH)2•8H2O Mg(NO3)2•6H2O MgCl2•6H2O NaNO3 MgCl2 MgF2 Paraﬃn C18H38 C22H46 C26H54 Non-paraﬃn Lauric acid (dodecanoic acid) Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) Palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) Stearic acid (octadecanoic acid) Glycerol (C3H8O3) Isoamyl laurate (C17H34O2) Isobutyl octanoate (C12H24O2) 1-octadecyl alcohol (C18H38O)
8.1 25.8 26 30 30 32.4 35.2 48 58 78 89/90 116 307 714 1263 28 44.4 56.1 44–45 54–55 63–64 69–71 26 29 43 57
253 125.9 147 296.8 189 257 265/280 188/201 226/264 267/280 149.5/162.8 165/168.6 172 452 938 243 249 256 225 220 215 243 184 205 177 242.85
Organic phase change materials
large phase change latent heat value, high thermal conductivity, high undercooling degree, easy phase separation, poor reversibility
high latent heat, low thermal conductivity, good stability, good reversibility, no obvious over-cooling
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temperature diﬀerence between battery cells. It indicated that thermal management performance of pure PCM is insuﬃcient, and the improved BTMS showed good temperature uniformity. The static temperature ﬁeld distribution of the two battery modules mentioned above is shown in Figs. 12 and 13. In order to improve the cycle stability and thermal management capability of the PCM-based BTMS, many researchers have coupled other cooling methods with the PCM-based BTMS. After extensive research, it is also a very eﬀective optimization method [135,136]. Especially in extreme environments, PCM-based hybrid BTMS can effectively reduce temperature rise and temperature diﬀerence and maintain battery performance [137,138].Hémery  proposed a cooling system coupled PCM with liquid cooling plate, which can solidify the PCM while the car is charging, it also can decrease or raise temperature under external hot or cold conditions when the car is parked. Fathabadi  coupled air cooling with PCM cooling into a hybrid battery thermal management system. The results showed that the temperature proﬁle and parameters of this battery pack are signiﬁcantly superior to other battery packs. Ling  proposed a hybrid BTMS that coupled PCM and forced air to dissipate heat for a lithiumion battery. It was compared with PCM-based BTMS with composite paraﬃn /EG. The results showed that the hybrid BTMS can improve the reliability of the PCM-based BTMS without increasing the system complexity, it can avoid excessive heat accumulation, and control the temperature at 50 °C in each cycle. At present, improving the thermal conductivity of PCM, improving the cycle stability and thermal management capability is the research emphases of the PCM-based BTMS. The PCM is coupled with other active thermal management systems, and combined them into a hybrid thermal management system, which can improve the cycle stability of the PCM-based BTMS. It is a new and eﬃcient battery thermal management system. In practical applications, more attention should be paid to the PCM packaging. Design details such as leakage, volume change of PCM, and proper quality of PCM based on load should be taken into consideration. The breakthrough of these practical problems is crucial for the PCM-based BTMS future development.
 initially proposed using phase change materials in battery thermal management system, and found that the temperature in the battery module controlled by PCM is more uniform than that cooled by air at diﬀerent discharge rates. which proved that PCM temperature control eﬀect is eﬀective. Rao  found that PCM with a melting point below 45 °C is more eﬀective in decreasing battery temperature. Javani  studied the cooling performance of PCM in batteries with various volumetric heat production rates. They found that PCM can decrease the peak temperature and obtained a better temperature performance. However, the low thermal conductivity of phase change materials leads to heat saturation. BTMS based on pure phase change materials cannot operate for a long time in high-power batteries, and cannot effectively control the battery temperature. Many researchers have further improved the performance of PCM. Adding other materials with high thermal conductivity and porous materials in PCM, such as metal foam, expanded graphite, carbon nanotubes, can produce composite energy storage materials with high thermal conductivity . Mills  applied a phase change material (PCM) passive battery thermal management system for lithium-ion laptop battery pack. With the PCM impregnated expanded graphite (EG), signiﬁcantly improved the low thermal conductivity of the PCM. Improving the properties of the PCM composite have the potential to signiﬁcantly reduce the volume increase in comparison to the original battery pack volume. Wu  developed a copper mesh (CM) reinforced paraﬃn/expanded graphite (PA/EG) composite material for composite PCM battery thermal management system, as shown in Fig. 10. They solved problems of PCM low thermal conductivity and weak skeleton strength, and CM enhanced heat dissipation performance and temperature uniformity of PA/EG board. Lv  used expanded graphite, paraﬃn and low density polyethylene to form ternary composites, which was combined with low ﬁns, and then coupled with battery module, as shown in Fig. 11. It has good heat dissipation performance, and eﬀectively dissipates a large amount of heat accumulated by the PCM to external air environment. This shows that combining the PCM with the ﬁns can not only take advantage of the PCM high latent heat value, but also increase the thermal conductivity by ﬁns, which is very promising. Zhao  found that battery surface temperature reached 39 ℃ after running the pure paraﬃn BTMS for 1800 times, and about 25 ℃ for the copper mesh/paraﬃn BTMS with the same situations. After adding foamed copper, battery surface temperature decreased by 14 ℃, the temperature was stabilized within a certain range, and there was no
3.2. Heat pipe-based cooling battery thermal management system As an eﬃcient heat transfer element, heat pipe is favored by the energy industry due to its high thermal conductivity and low thermal resistance. It is widely used in aerospace, military industry, microelectronics heat dissipation, building materials, metallurgy, solar energy and other ﬁelds. [142–144]. Thanks to the variable structure, the heat pipe can move a large amount of heat inside the battery pack to keep the battery within the required operating temperature range. The temperature diﬀerence inside the battery pack can also be signiﬁcantly reduced. It can also signiﬁcantly reduce the temperature diﬀerence inside battery cells . The aforementioned PCM-based BTMS has problems, such as diﬃculty in controlling the volume change during solidiﬁcation, limited thermal conductivity leading to insuﬃcient temperature gradient, and long thermal response time [146,147]. Using heat pipe for BTMS becomes an eﬀective temperature control method. So far, the types of heat pipes used in large quantities mainly include pulsating heat pipes, sintering heat pipes, and ﬂat ring heat pipes. The battery releases heat during the charging/discharging, and then transmits it to the heat pipe which is in direct contact with the bottom or side of the battery. Finally, the heat is removed by the heat dissipation system at cold end of heat pipe. Several common heat pipe-based BTMS are shown in Fig. 14. Related studies have found that a heat pipe-based BTMS can eﬀectively reduce the maximum temperature rise of battery packs and temperature diﬀerence between cells. Yuan  adopted heat pipe as main heat transfer element of BTMS, supplemented by heat collecting plate and heat sink, to analyze battery pack temperature inﬂuencing factors and related mechanisms. Simulation results showed that heat
Fig. 10. Composite PCM preparation. 9
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Fig. 11. Schematic diagram of L-CPCM battery pack coupling heat sink ﬁns.
Fig. 12. Static temperature contour of battery thermal module using pure PCM after 1800 s of operation.
Fig. 14. (a) Contact liquid-cooled heat pipe heat exchange system (b) Noncontact liquid-cooled heat pipe heat exchange system.
ion battery and found that the heat pipe showed good eﬀect on the BTMS for the limited surface area battery pack. The design of heat pipe and the arrangement in BTMS are the two most important factors. Reasonable design for heat pipe is very important to improve BTMS eﬃciency. Channel size, liquid ﬁlling capacity and working medium are all factors that aﬀect heat pipe heat transfer eﬀect. They have found that diﬀerent heat pipe designs, diﬀerent liquid ﬁlling amounts and diﬀerent working media were adopted, the cooling eﬀect of heat pipes is very diﬀerent. In order to understand the thermal performance of closed-loop oscillation heat pipe/phase change material (CLOHP/PCM) coupling module ﬁlled with diﬀerent working media, Zhao explored the thermal characteristics of three diﬀerent working media ﬁlled with self-rewetting ﬂuid (SRWF), water and ethanol under diﬀerent tilt angles and thermal loads. It was found that the heat transfer performance of SRWF and water is better at a low heat load, both in tilt and horizontal conditions. Putra  used a ﬂat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) as a heat exchanger for the lithium-ion BTMS of an electric vehicle (see Fig. 15). He studied the eﬀect of diﬀerent working ﬂuids on heat dissipation of heat pipes. The experiment chose distilled water, alcohol and acetone as the heat pipe ﬁlling liquid, and
Fig. 13. Static temperature contour of battery thermal module using copper foam/paraﬃn after 1800 s of operation.
pipe-based BTMS can eﬀectively suppress battery temperature rise. Smith  proposed a heat pipe-based high-power BTMS, which can provide better temperature uniformity and system safety than traditional liquid cooling system. When cooled by water with an 25 ℃ inlet temperature and a 1liter/minute (lit/min) ﬂow rate, the system dissipates heat about 50 W and keeps temperature below 55 ℃. Gan  proposed a BTMS based on heat pipe with a cylindrical battery module as the research object. It was found that the battery temperature can be signiﬁcantly reduced by 14 °C in the 5 C discharge rate, which compared with a naturally air-cooled BTMS. Rao  designed a BTMS equipped with a heat pipe, which is according to the heating characteristics of the power battery. It was found that the maximum temperature can be controlled below 50 °C when the heat is less than 50 W. Therefore, the maximum temperature and temperature diﬀerence can be kept within the desired range under unstable operating conditions and cyclic test conditions. Greco  analyzed the prismatic lithium10
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diﬀerence inside the battery pack decreased. Using BTMS with the MHPAs improves the stability and safety of the battery, during continuous charging and discharging. In addition, the layout of BTMS will have a great impact on thermal conductivity of the heat pipe. Saha  proposed that embedded heat pipes can delay or prevent thermal runaway due to excessive heat in the battery. Wang  placed L-shaped sintered heat pipe between adjacent cells, and battery surface temperature can be controlled below 40℃ when the battery power is less than 10 W/cell. Heat pipe has a high thermal conductivity, which can make up for the low heat conduction of pure PCM. The coupling of HP and PCM as a BTMS is a new and eﬀective way to improve the BTMS cooling performance more eﬃciently, which has become a very popular BTMS in recent years. The hybrid PCM-based BTMS can further improve the heat dissipation capability of the PCM, and improve the battery performance under extreme temperature conditions. The PCM-HP coupled battery thermal management system not only takes advantage of the high thermal conductivity of HP, but also make full use of PCM latent heat. HP can enlarge the operating temperature range of the PCM, and improve the BTMS cooling performance [161–163]. Wu  designed a BTMS based on heat pipe assisted phase change material (PCM). It has been found that the maximum temperature can be controlled below 50 °C, when operating at a 5C discharge rate, and the temperature ﬂuctuation can still be more stable and lower after the cycle. It is important to reduce the energy consumption and improve the performance of the hybrid BTMS active part. Achieving a reasonable match between active management and passive management in a hybrid BTMS will be the research emphasis in future . At present, saving active part energy consumption is the key to improving the actual utilization of the PCM-HP coupled BTMS [166,167].
Fig. 15. Schematic diagram of battery thermal management system with ﬂat plate loop heat pipe(FPLHP).
the ﬁlling rate was 60%. Results showed that the thermal performance of the heat pipe is the best when acetone is used as the working medium, when the heat load is 1.61 W/cm2 and the evaporation temperature is 50 °C. Wei  adopted a “sandwich” type battery thermal management structure, and arranged pulsating heat pipes between adjacent cells, as shown in Fig. 16. Exploring the BTMS performance when pure waterethanol working medium mixed in diﬀerent proportions, with 30%, 40%, 50% liquid ﬁlling rate respectively. It was found that working medium was mixed in 1:1 or 1:2, and ﬁlling rate reached 30%, when the input power was 56 W, the average battery temperature can be controlled below 46.2 °C, and the system has good temperature uniformity, the maximum temperature diﬀerence is 1–2 ℃. Tran  compared the thermal performance of the ﬂat-plate heat pipe BTMS with the conventional heat sinks under diﬀerent conditions (including various cooling conditions and several inclined positions). It was found that using heat pipes can reduce thermal resistance of conventional radiators by 20% in natural convection, and 20% in low wind velocity. The battery temperature can be kept below 50 °C. The ﬂat heat pipe has a large ﬂexibility in space, and is suitable for various practical working conditions. Zhao  proposed a BTMS with ultra-thin heat pipes, which can control the battery temperature in an appropriate temperature range with the lowest energy consumption and cost. Ye  used micro heat pipe arrays (MHPAs) as BTMS. At a current rate of 1 C, the temperature rise rate decreased, and the temperature
3.3. Thermoelectric element-based cooling battery thermal management system Thermoelectric refrigeration technology is an electronic refrigeration technology with high eﬃciency and low energy consumption. Thermoelectric elements are characterized by compact structure, fast response, and integration of refrigeration and heating, providing new ideas for BTMS [168,169]. The thermoelectric elements can be divided into two categories, one is a thermoelectric generator (TEG) based on Seebeck eﬀect, which converts heat into electricity and uses waste heat as energy [170,171]. The other is a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based on Peltier eﬀect, which converts electricity into heat for cooling and heating [172–174]. The most direct representative is semiconductor refrigeration, as shown in Fig. 17. Based on the thermoelectric elements characteristics, a large number of experiments and simulations have been done to prove feasibility of thermoelectric elements in BTMS. Alaoui  studied a BTMS based on Peltier thermoelectric elements, and measured discharge eﬃciency of a 60-Ah prismatic lithium ion battery at diﬀerent rates and temperatures. It was found that thermal response and energy consumption of the BTMS can meet the design requirements. Zhang  designed a BTMS using semiconductor refrigeration, simulated and analyzed it. The results showed that the BTMS had a good cooling eﬀect under high temperature conditions. At present, the research progress of thermoelectric elements refrigeration used for BTMS is still in its infancy, and there are still many problems to be solved in the development of this technology. Thermoelectric elements are used for BTMS, and there is still a lot of room to improve battery pack cooling performance. How to further optimize the thermoelectric elements-based BTMS is a problem that researchers need to solve. Low conversion eﬃciency and high material cost of thermoelectric elements are the major factors restricting their popularization. Optimizing TEC, and improving cooling performance of thermoelectric elements is the key of thermoelectric elements-based BTMS in the future development.
Fig. 16. Schematic diagram of BTMS with plug-in OHPs (oscillating heat pipes). 11
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Fig. 17. Schematic diagram of thermo-electric cooling module (TEC).
BTMS. Sabbah  compared the cooling performance of phase change materials (PCM) with forced air. The results showed that in high discharge rate conditions and higher operating temperatures (40–45 °C), air cooling was less eﬀective than PCM-based BTMS. Air cooling cannot keep the battery temperature at the desired range without consuming additional fan power, while PCM cooling can be performed under the same pressure conditions without consuming additional fan power to meet operating requirements. Kizilel  evaluated the PCM-based BTMS and the air-cooling BTMS. He found that during high-pulse power discharge, the PCM-based BTMS can dissipate heat more soon, making the battery temperature more uniform and ensuring cycle life of the battery pack. The new BTMS has better cooling performance, lower power consumption and better overall system performance. The new BTMS is the inheritance and development of the traditional BTMS, which is more ﬂexible to use and more suitable for the electric vehicle development. In traditional BTMS, liquid cooling system is still a popular cooling method because of its high thermal conductivity and high speciﬁc heat capacity, and the liquid cooling system is compact and small enough to ﬁt in tight spaces. Tesla and General Motors have applied this system to electric vehicle ﬁeld, with good results. Therefore, the liquid cooling system still has a very good application prospect. In fact, traditional BTMS and new BTMS have their own characteristics. With the goal of optimizing the overall performance of BTMS, comprehensively consider the advantages and disadvantages, adopt the advantages of diﬀerent system designs, optimize the inadequacies. Combine the electric vehicles development trend, and develop the best battery thermal management system.
3.4. Application and development for new battery thermal management system The three new battery thermal management systems are described in detail, including PCM-based BTMS, heat pipe-based BTMS, thermoelectric elements-based BTMS. On the basis of current laboratory research, this paper discusses the three new BTMS research progress, and summarizes the research emphasis. Considering the practical application in recent years, the problems that the battery cooling system may face in the future development are proposed. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each type BTMS, and propose the future development direction and solution, as shown in Table 3. All these work provide a reference on how to improve the BTMS cooling performance in the future research. The PCM-based BTMS coupled with other active BTMS can improve the cycle stability and thermal management capabilities, which will be the main development trend for the future development of PCM-based BTMS. Screening PCM with low price, stable structure, high thermal conductivity, long service life and simple manufacturing process is research hotspots of PCM-based BTMS in the future. The PCM-HP coupled BTMS is a very popular new thermal management method in recent years, which can improve the BTMS cooling performance. Improving the thermoelectric cooling performance of TEC is the key to improve thermoelectric elements-based BTMS. 4. Comparison between new BTMS and traditional BTMS In general, the new BTMS is optimized on the basis of the traditional BTMS. Many scholars compared the cooling performance of the two Table 3 summary for the new battery thermal management cooling system. Cooling method
Solution and development direction
1.PCM has high energy storage density, low price, easy availability, and energy saving. 2.System accessories are few, structure is compact, reduces complexity and save costs.
1.When PCM phase changes, volume changes greatly and is easy to leak. 2.Most PCM thermal conductivity is relatively low. 3.Increasing PCM quality improves eﬃciency while increasing energy consumption and reducing vehicle performance.
Thermoelectric elementbased cooling
Good thermal conductivity, ﬂexible shape and wide application range
Thermoelectric elementbased cooling
Low energy consumption, no noise, long operating life, no harmful gases emission
Small capacity, small contact area, complex system structure, risk of leakage, high cost, complex technology Low eﬃciency, requires external power support
1. Improve packaging standards and prevent leakage. 2. Reasonably improve thermal conductivity of PCM. (Insert metal ﬁn, metal foam or graphite foam into PCM sleeve; Add metal powder, expanded graphite powder, nanoparticles or nanotubes to PCM) 3. Determine appropriate PCM quality. 4. PCM cooling mode coupled to other cooling systems (such as PCM coupled traditional liquid cooling system, PCM coupled active air cooling system) Improving system reliability and thermal conductivity, reducing system energy consumption are the mainstream trend in the future development for PCM-based BTMS. 1.Optimize heat pipe structure. (Such as runner size, liquid ﬁlling capacity, internal working medium) 2.Optimize heat pipe layout. 1.Improve TEC cooling performance, improve thermal management system. 2.Insert high conductivity material between TEC. 3. Develop a variety of inputable electrical energy.
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As the requirements for electric vehicle batteries are getting higher and higher, the energy density of batteries is gradually increasing, and the requirements for BTMS are becoming more and more urgent. The emergence of new BTMS has created more opportunities for the development of BTMS.
In recent years, the research on the ﬁeld of BTMS at home and abroad has been discussed in detail. The research progress of traditional BTMS and new BTMS in recent years is reviewed, as well as the research emphasis of diﬀerent BTMS. Objectively evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of diﬀerent BTMS performance, propose a reasonable solution, and make a reasonable prediction of future development trends. It provides a reference idea for improving the BTMS cooling performance, and combines the actual problems that BTMS will face in application, as well as the opportunities and challenges in the future development. Finally, the new BTMS is compared with the traditional BTMS to make a reasonable outlook for the BTMS future development. The following conclusions are drawn:
Declaration of Competing Interest None. Supplementary materials Supplementary material associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:10.1016/j.est.2019.101155. References
(1) The miniaturization of electric vehicles batteries has become a trend. Accordingly, the BTMS should be miniaturized in the future development to save the internal space of electric vehicles. (2) The air cooling system is simple in design, safe and reliable in use, and suitable for a variety of battery forms. However, the air has a low heat capacity, a small thermal conductivity, and limited thermal management capabilities. Active thermal management systems also have problems such as high power consumption, high cost, and aﬀecting car comfort. Therefore, the vehicles with small battery capacity and short operation time is suitable for using air cooling BTMS without other power. Selecting the right refrigerant, improving the refrigerant performance, solving the overheating, and improving the ﬁre protection function become very urgent for the refrigerant direct BTMS. Applying the temperature control system and the ﬂow control system is the key of refrigerant direct BTMS to adapting future development. (3) Liquid cooling system is a very eﬀective cooling method, which is widely used in the ﬁeld of electric vehicles. When designing, the sealing layer should be set to prevent liquid leakage. Setting up the microchannels can improve cooling performance while avoiding complex structures and overpacking. At present, the research emphasis more on how to reduce the peak temperature of the battery pack, while on the battery cells temperature diﬀerence is insuﬃcient. Future research should focus on how to reduce the battery cells temperature diﬀerence. Moreover nanoﬂuids, liquid metals, and boiling liquids have gradually shown their advantages in liquid cooling systems due to their high thermal conductivity. (4) The combination of PCM BTMS and other active BTMS can not only improve thermal conductivity, but also reduce power consumption, which is the main future development trend of PCM-based BTMS. In the future development and design of PCM-HP hybrid BTMS, we should pay attention to the rational allocation of active management and passive management, save the energy consumption of active thermal management, and improve the utilization rate of the hybrid BTMS. (5) The contact area of the cylindrical battery outer surface is small. Providing a cooling system on the outer surface will result in a large temperature gradient and a higher hot spot temperature inside the battery. Accelerating the battery aging, and reduce the performance. The solution is to insert heat pipes into the cylindrical battery, which can eﬀectively reduce the temperature gradient and hot spot size, making the battery structure complicated. In contrast, prismatic lithium-ion batteries have a larger contact area and more advantageous in terms of thermal performance. Most PCM-based BTMS are studied with cylindrical batteries. In the future, PCMbased prismatic battery thermal management systems can be used as the research emphasis on surface cooling technology. (6) Comparing the new BTMS with the traditional BTMS, it is found that the new BTMS is optimized on the basis of the traditional BTMS. The new BTMS has a more compact structure, improved cooling performance, more ﬂexible use and improved practicability.
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