Salmonellae in Poultry Feeds1

Salmonellae in Poultry Feeds1

PORTAL VEIN CATHETERIZATION Conner, G. H., and G. F. Fries, 1960. Studies of bovine portal blood. I. Establishment and maintenance of portal and mesen...

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PORTAL VEIN CATHETERIZATION Conner, G. H., and G. F. Fries, 1960. Studies of bovine portal blood. I. Establishment and maintenance of portal and mesenteric vein catheters. Am. J. Vet. Res. 2 1 : 1028-1032. Crossley, J. N., and I. McColl, 1967. Chronic catheterization of the portal vein in baboons. J. Physiol. 189: SIP. Grau, H., 1943. Anatomie der Hausvogel. Chapter VIII in Ellenberger, W. and H. Baum, Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Haustiere. Springer Verlag, Berlin. Jungblut, P. W., B. Lohmann, R. Schober and F.


Turba, 1955. Eine Methode sur fortlaufenden Blutentnahme aus der Vena portae von Hunden. Experientia, 11: 241-242. Lee, C. C , 1953. Experimental studies on the action of several anesthetics in domestic fowl. Poultry Sci. 32 : 624-627. Shoemaker, W. C , W. F. Walker, T. B. Van Itallie and F. D. Moore, 1959. A method for simultaneous catheterization of major vessels in a chronic canine preparation. Am. J. Physiol. 196: 311-314.

H . C. ZlNDEL 2 AND M . V. BENNETT 3 Department of Poultry Science and Department of Veterinary Clinics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48S23 (Received for publication April 22. 1968)


HE poultry industry continues to be plagued by problems caused by paratyphoid and other related enteric infections. The presence of Salmonellae in feed ingredients as well as in finished feeds has been reported in the United States and Europe. During the past thirty years, over 100 different Salmonellae serotypes have been isolated from the avian species in the United States. The source of the Salmonellae continues to be a mystery in many of the cases.



The contamination of poultry feeds and feed ingredients with Salmonellae has been reported by a number of workers. An English report by the Ministry of Health (1959) reported that the bacteriological 1 Published with the approval of the Director of the Experiment Station as Journal Article No. 4364. 2 Professor and Department Chairman. 'Principal Bacteriologist, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

examination of 1,262 samples of animal feeding meals and organic fertilizers resulted in the isolation of 88 Salmonellae serotypes. Boyer et al. (1958) was able to isolate 9 serotypes from meat scraps and turkey feed. Watkins et al. (1959) isolated 28 serotypes in 200 samples examined, a Salmonellae contamination rate of 18.5%. Moran (1961) stated that during 1959, there was an increase from 11% to 20% in the incidence of Salmonellae isolations from animal feeds and feed ingredients (2,350 cultures). Forty-six different Salmonellae serotypes were found in animal feeds, with 39 different types coming from turkey feed and 33 from chicken feed. Burr and Helmboldt (1962) examined 436 animal byproducts contained in feed ingredient samples for contaminating Salmonellae species during February, 1961, through February, 1962. Fifty-six or 12.8% isolations were made. Ten different Salmonellae species were identified. Faddoul and Fellows (1966) isolated Salmonellae from three out of 285 bags of poultry mash.

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Salmonellae in Poultry Feeds1




This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of Salmonellae in poultry feed and ingredients used by the Poultry Science research unit at East Lansing and at Chatham, Michigan. The samples of finished feed were received from four commercial feed mills. On September 25, 1961, a decision was made to sample all finished feeds manufactured or delivered to the Michigan State University Poultry Science Department for experimental animals. One question was asked—"Can Salmonellae be isolated in the feeds delivered to the Poultry Science Department?"


Samples: The feed samples were submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, Veterinary Clinics, MSU.4 Samples were collected in one pound quantities in brown paper bags. Materials: Bacteriological media used included Selenite F Enrichment Broth (BBL), Brilliant Green Agar, SalmonellaShigella Agar (Difco) and other media traditionally used in the classification of members of the Enterobacterlaceae family. Methods: Selenite F was made fresh each day of use. Five (5) gms. of feed were added to 50 ml. of Selenite F broth, mixed to insure thorough wetting, and incubated 18-24 hours at 35°C. After incubation, one loopful (loop size —5 mm. diameter) was streaked on each of the Brilliant Green and SS agar plates and incubated again for 18-24 hours at 35°C. Kligler's Iron Agar was stabbed with suspicious colonies from Brilliant Green and SS agar. Further differential tests included lysine decarboxylation, urease activity, motility, indole production, methyl red reaction and citrate utilization. All cultures that resembled Salmonella sp. were confirmed with polyvalent Salmonellae antiserum and grouping sera when appropriate. Final serotyping was done at the Regional Salmonellae Typing Station (Michigan Department of Health Laboratories, Lansing, according to procedures in A.R.A. Publication No. 91-36, 1962). RESULTS As of February 1, 1968, 655 samples of feed and feed ingredients were analyzed 4 Prior to August, 196S, this laboratory was part of the Department of Microbiology and Public Health, MSU.

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Ervin (1955) collected samples from 206 bags of poultry feed, which represented the products of nine commercial companies, over a period of 18 months. Seventy-seven samples yielded Salmonellae-like colonies on different media. However, 73 samples were identified as Paracolobactrum sp., one as Proteus mirabilis and three as Salmonella oranienburg. On the other hand, Morehouse and Wedman (1961) indicated that conclusive evidence was lacking to incriminate feed as the cause of salmonellosis in poultry. Dr. John Walker (1967), U. S. Department of Agriculture, speaking at the National Poultry Improvement Plan Supervisors' meeting in Madison, Wisconsin, on June 20, 1967, reported on a 26-state survey made on feed products in 1966 (Allred etal., 1967). The contamination found in a total of 12,770 samples of feed and feed ingredients, was 4.2%. The categories showing contamination, from highest to lowest, were animal byproducts (31.07%), poultry feed (5.23%), fish meal (4.72%), swine feed (3.13%), oilseed meals (2.28%), cattle feed (0.85%), and grains (0.66%).


SALMONELLAE IN FEEDS TABLE 1.—Salmonellae isolated from samples of feed and feed ingredients delivered to East Lansing, Michigan Type of feed

73 74 227 361 419

Meat and bone meal Meat meal Turkey breeder Layer-breeder Turkey grower

489 542 617

Meat scraps Layer-breeder Layer-breeder

Bacteriological analysis S. Indiana S. S. S. S.

senftenberg schwarzengrund seigburg typhimurium •ear. Copenhagen S. senftenberg S. oranienburg S. livingstone

from the E. Lansing station, and 153 samples of feed from the U.P.E.S.5 Table 1 lists the Salmonellae isolations made from 655 samples of feed and feed ingredients delivered to E. Lansing. In June, 1962, the first Salmonellae was isolated from some meat and bone meal and meat meal. They were identified as S. indiana and 5. senftenberg. On August 25, 1963, S. schwarzengrund was isolated from a sample of turkey breeder mash. 5. seigburg was isolated from a sample of layer-breeder mash on May 12, 1965. Later that year, on November 18, the Salmonella suspect taken from a turkey grower mash was identified as S. typhimurium var. Copenhagen. In early 1966, May 19th, S. senftenberg was found in meat scraps. Later that year, October 12th, S. oranienburg was isolated from layerbreeder mash. The layer-breeder mash examined in August, 1967, yielded S. livingstone. The samples of finished feeds delivered to the Upper Peninsula Experiment Station (U.P.E.S.) revealed the following: 153 samples from a commercial layer mash mixed in a local mill and delivered in bulk yielded only five isolates. The sampling began on October 21, 1961, and terminated 5

Upper Peninsula Experiment Station.

Sample no. 55 70 128 132 137

Bacteriological analysis

Type of feed Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer

mash mash mash mash mash

S. schwarzengrund S. Montevideo S. oranienburg S. livingstone S. livingstone

on December 22, 1967. The five Salmonellae isolates are shown in Table 2. Therefore, a grand total of 808 samples (655 from E. Lansing and 153 from the U.P.E.S.) were examined bacteriologically and Salmonellae were isolated from 13 samples (1.6 percent). No attempt was made to correlate the death loss of experimental birds which were fed the contaminated feed. CONCLUSION

Salmonellae were not isolated from pelleted or extruded feeds. The low percentage of Salmonellae contaminated feeds found in this study may well be a reflection of the extremely small samples examined. The Michigan State University Poultry Pathology clinicians reported that the Salmonellae serotypes isolated from poultry feeds examined do not correspond to Salmonellae isolated upon necropsy of birds received from the Poultry Science Research and Teaching Center. REFERENCES Allred, J. N., J. W. Walker, V. C. Beal and F. W. Germaine, 1967. A survey to determine the Salmonella contamination rate in livestock and poultry feeds. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 151: 1857-1860. Boyer, C. L., D. W. Bruner and J. A. Brown. 1958. Salmonella organisms isolated from poultry feed. Avian Diseases, 2: 396-401. Burr, W. E., and C. F. Helmboldt, 1962. Salmo-

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Sample No.

TABLE 2.—Salmonellae isolated from samples of feed delivered to the U. P. Experiment Station, Chatham, Michigan


H . C. ZlNDEL AND M . V. BENNETT tures from agriculture sources: 1959. Avian Diseases, 3 : 147-149. Morehouse, L. G., and E. E. Wedman, 1961. Salmonella and other disease-producing organisms in animal byproducts.—A survey. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 9: 989-995. Watkins, J. R., A. L. Flowers and L. C. Grumbles, 1959. Salmonella organisms in animal products used in poultry feeds. Avian Diseases, 3 : 209-301. Agriculture Research Service Publication No. 91-36. October, 1962. Recommended procedures for the isolation of Salmonella organisms.

Effects of Iodocasein Feeding on Broiler Thyroid SADAO HOSHINO, HISAO DOIZAKI AND KAZUWO MOEIMOTO Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University, Tsu, Japan (Received for publication April 22, 1968)


T IS well known that iodocasein is effective as a thyroid hormone. Reineke et al. (1943) have demonstrated the presence of 1 percent of thyroxine (T4) in this substance. Therefore, when iodocasein is fed directly to adult or growing chickens, metabolic rate is elevated and thyroid involution occurs (Irwin et al., 1943; Mellen and Hill, 1953; Garren and Shaffner, 1956). On the other hand, the goiter developed by iodocasin feeding has been reported. It is claimed that the high iodide content of iodocasein might be responsible for its goitrogenic influence (Wheeler and Hoffmann, 1948,1950). The present paper reports the effects of iodocasein on iodine metabolism when it was added to the diets of broiler chicken.

of iodocasein, 0.05 % milk casein was added to the diet of control group. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The chemical composition of the basal ration was as follows: moisture 12.7%, ash 6.2, ether extract 4.5, crude protein 15.9, crude fiber 2.6 and nitrogen-free extract 51.8. At 7 weeks of age, 10 birds were selected at random from each groups and injected intraperitoneally 0.2 ml. of 131I solution. Twenty-four hours after 131I injection, the birds were killed and about 10 ml. of blood were collected. Thyroids were removed, weighed on a torsion balance and placed in a thiourea solution (10 mg./ml.). The radioactive sodium iodide Na131I (carrier free), 100 [Ac/ml. was obtained from Dainabott RI. 131 I uptake: The radioactivity of the MATERIALS AND METHODS thyroid was determined with a well type Nichols commercial chickens ( ? 108 X scintillation counter (Nihon Musen Co., cT 909) hatched on October 9th were kept Aloka) and percent of dose was calculated. in heated brooders until reaching 7 weeks Conversion ratio: The radioactivity of of age. They were fed an all-mashed serum was counted with the counter menbasal ration with 0.05% iodocasein (pro- tioned above. Two ml. of the serum mixed duced by Kokin Chemicals Co.). Instead with 20 mg. of human plasma were added

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nella species contaminants in three animal byproducts. Avian Diseases, 6: 441-443. Ervin, L. E., 1955. Examination of prepared poultry feeds for the presence of Salmonella and other enteric organisms. Poultry Sci. 34 : 21S-216. Faddoul, G. P., and G. W. Fellows, 1966. A fiveyear survey of the incidence of Salmonellae in avian species. 1965. Avian Diseases, 10: 296-304. Monthly Bulletin of Ministry of Health and Public Health Laboratory Service, England, 1959. 18: 26-35. Moran, A. B., 1961. Salmonella and Arizona cul-