Some new discomycete species

Some new discomycete species

[ 475 ] Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 63 (3),475-485 (1974) Printed in Great Britain SOME NEW DISCOMYCETE SPECIES By W. D. GRADDON Ross-on- Wye, Herefordsh...

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[ 475 ] Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 63 (3),475-485 (1974) Printed in Great Britain

SOME NEW DISCOMYCETE SPECIES By W. D. GRADDON

Ross-on- Wye, Herefordshire (With 8 Text-figures) Ten new species are described including Incrupila uiridipilosa, Hyalotricha niveocincta, Unguicularia dilatopilosa, Betulinafuscostipitata, Psilachnum rubrotinctum, Uncinia scintillans, Calycellina indumenticola, Hysteropezizella doiuardensis, T richodiscus heterotrichus and Mollisia fuscostriata.

Incrupila viridipilosa sp.nov. (Fig. 1) Apothecia gregaria, ad 300/lm lata, substipitata, virida vel ochracea, pilosa. Pilis ad 35 x 3/lm, cylindraceis, obtusis, granulis viridis densis incrustatis, Excipulum texturaprismatica, hyalina. Asci c. 35 x 5/lm, octospori, poro minuto iodo adjuvante caerulescentes. Ascosporae 3-4 XI' 5-2 /lm, ellipticae, guttulis minutis praeditae. Paraphyses filiformes, asco non superantes, saepe prope basim furcatae. Ad ligno Aceris, Wellesbourne wood, Warwks., Jan. 1973, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2265.

This appears to be another collection of the fungus described by Dennis (1962) from a Yorkshire collection by W. G. Bramley and, tentatively, referred to Trichopeziza viridula Grelet (1953). A little later, Dennis (1963) thought the Yorkshire fungus probably distinct from that of Grelet and to belong in Cistella; the finding of identical material in Warwickshire supports this. However, in the meantime, Raitviir (1970) has erected the genus Incrupila and the species is, perhaps, better placed here than in Cistella. T. viridula Grelet differs mainly in having two kinds of hairs (cylindrical-granulate and smooth-acuminate) and in its longer, cylindrical spores, 5-7 x 2-2'5 {lm. I. viridipilosa is of fine green colour when at its best but tends soon to change to dull ochraceous; the colour is in the crystals encrusting the hairs.

Hyalotricha niveocincta sp.nov. (Fig. 2) Apothecia sparsa, ad 300/lm lata, superficialia, substipitata; hymenio fusco; extus aureobrunnea, pilis hyalinis, rigidis vestita. Excipulum textura-prismatica. Pilis ad 60/lm longis, e basi c. 3/lm crassis sensim attenuatis in apicem obtusis, laevis, lumen capillaribus praeditae. Asci ad 55 x 10 /lm, claviformes, octospori, annulo iodo adjuvante non caerulescentes. Ascosporae 9-12 x 2'5-3 psi», latiuscule fusiformes, guttulis variis praeditae, non septatae. Paraphyses filiformes, non-numquam superne furcatae. In caulibus marcidis Euphorbiae amygadaloidis, Oversley, Warwks., Jan. 1973, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2263.

A striking little fungus with a dark disk encircled by an incurved margin of densely packed, glassy, hyaline hairs; the orange brown

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150 tlm

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Incrupila oiridipiiosa. Median section, ascospores, asci, paraphysis and excipular cellswith hairs.

receptacle is more sparsely clothed with similar hairs all having a very slender thread of lumen reaching almost to the bluntly pointed apex. In section, the golden brown excipular cells are ± quadrate, c. 12 pm across at the base and diminishing to c. 5 pm across near the margin; the outer cells from which hairs arise tend to be more elongate, c. 10 X 4 pm; all lie in rows at a low angle to the surface. Basal excipulum c. 25-30 pm thick, diminishing to c. 15 pm as the margin is approached. Unguicularia dilatopilosa sp.nov. (Fig. 3) Apothecia sparsa, ad 600 p,m crassa, subsessilia; hymenio fusee; extus aureo-brunnea, pilis hyalinis vestita. Excipulum textura-prismatica. Pilis ad 70 p,m longis, e basi dilatis ad 8 p,m crassis subito in arista solidus attenuatis. Asci ad 30 x 4 p,m, octospori, poro iodo adjuvante non visibilia. Ascosporae 5-7 x 1-1'5 p,m, bacilliformae. Paraphyses filiformes, apicibus leniter incrassatis. In caulibus marcidis Epilobii hirsuti, Padstow, Cornwall, Apr. 1973, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in Herb. K, W.D.G. 2281.

A striking little fungus with an almost black disk ringed by a margin of densely packed, glassy-hyaline hairs; similar hairs clothe the whole of the receptacle. The hairs have a much-swollen, elliptical, thin-walled base above which they contract sharply into a long, solid arista. The excipulum is c. 40 pm thick near the base and narrows towards the margin; the outermost cells are brownish and 5- 10 pm across, the inner hyaline and more

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150 Jim

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Hyalotricha niveocincta. Median section, ascospores, ascus paraphysis and detail of excipular cells and hairs.

elongate, attaining 20 x 7 ps«. Three specimens of this species were noticed by Malcolm Clark among a colony of Stictis stellata; although so few in number, they were in such a perfect state of maturity that it seems justifiable to base the description of a new species upon them. Betulina fuscostipitata sp.nov. (Fig. 3) Apothecia sparsa, superficialia, stipitata, pilosa. Cupula ad 200 pm lata, griseo-aIba, margine lobato. Stipula ad 80 pm longa x 40 pm crassa, fusca. Pilis ad 36 pm longis, hyalinis, strictis, e basi c. 3 pm crassis sensim acutis, prope basim septatis, granuIis sparsis incrustatis. Excipulum tcxtura-prismatica, hyalina, cellulis ad 13 x 6 pm. Asci ad 30 x 5 pm, octospori, poro iodo adjuvante caerulescentes. Ascosporae 5-7 x c. I usn, nonnumquam z-guttulatae. Paraphyses filiformes. Ad folia Betula, prope Coleshill, Warwks., Oct. 1972, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in Herb. K, W.D.G. 2245.

For stipitate Hyaloscyphas such as this, Velenovsky (1947) erected the

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B lO/lm I..-....J Fig. 3. A, Unguicularia dilatopilosa. Median section, ascospores, asci, paraphysis and part of the lateral excipulum with hairs. B, Betulina fuscostipitata. Median section, ascospores, ascus, paraphysis and hairs.

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Fig. 4. Psilachnum rubrotinctum. Ascospores, asci, paraphyses, hairs and surface view of excipular cells.

genus Betulina with the single species B. hirta; this was everywhere pure white, had hairs up to I mm long and very small spores 3-5 pm long. Psilachnum. rubrotinctwn sp.nov. (Fig. 4) Apothecia subsessilia, ad 500 pm lata, griseo-alba, pilosa, in vapore ammoniaco statim rubrotinetum. Pilis ad 60 pm longis, e basi c. 5 pm erassis sensim in apieem obtusis attenuatis, laevis, hyalinis, 3-4 septatis. Exeipulum textura-prismatiea, hyalina, eellulis ad 20 x IOpm. Asci 35-40 x 5-6 psn, octospori, poro iodo adjuvante caeruleseentes. Ascosporae 6--7 x 1'5-2 pm, fusiformes. Paraphyses superne acutae, crassit. 1'5-3 pm, aseo aequales. In caulibus marcidis Filipendulae ulmariae, prope Alcester, Warwks., June 1972, 2218. M. C. Clark. Holotypus in Herb, K,

w.n.G.

The pale yellow, dry apothecia have the remarkable character of turning brick-red immediately they are exposed to ammonia vapour. Pezizella lanceolato-paraphysata Rehm (I g08) differs in being hairless and in having a smaller cell structure and lanceolate paraphyses which project prominently above the asci.

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lOpm

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\rl 150 pm

Fig. 5. A, Uncinia sciniillans. Median section, ascus, paraphysis, ascospores, hairs and excipular cells. B, Calycellina indumenticola. Side view, ascospores, asci, paraphysis and detail of upper excipulum and margin.

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Fig. 6. Hysteropezizella douiardmsis. Median section, ascospores, asci, paraphyses and marginal hairs.

Uncinia scintillans sp.nov. (Fig. 5) Apothecia sparsa, superficialia, sessilia, ad 400 pm crassa. Hymenio ochraceo; extus pilis brunneis, uncinatis vestita. Excipulum textura-prismatica, Pilis ad 80 pm longis, laevis, septatis, e basi ad 4 pm crassis sensim in apicem uncinatis, hyalinis, obtusis attenuatis. Asci ad 65 x 14 pm, octospori, poro iodo adjuvante caerulescentes. Ascosporae 15-19 x 3-4 pm, fusiformes, r-septatae, Paraphyses filiformes, apice c1avati ad 4 pm, septatae, Ad folia marcida Caricis pendulae, Snitterfield Bushes, Warwks., Dec. 1972, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2250.

This little fungus grew in a miniature forest of black mycelial setae with which, however, it appeared to have no obvious connexion. The hairs are pale brown in the straight part but the hooked apices are hyaline and these scintillate against the apparently dark receptacle, the colour of this being due to the densely packed hair bases and the underlying excipulum being of hyaline prismatic cells. Uncinia was erected by Velenovsky (1934) with fourteen species and later taken up by Raitviir (1970).

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Fig. 7. Trichodiscus heurotrichus. Apothcciumseenfrom below,median section, ascospores, ascus, ascus tip in Melzer, paraphysis, setae and hairs.

Calycellina indumenticola sp.nov. (Fig. 5) Apothecia gregaria, minutissima, ad 150 pm lata, sessilia, hyalina. Excipulum texturaprismatica; cellulis marginalibus anguste clavatis . Asci 26-32 x 6-7 usn, non-pedicellati, octospori, poro minuto iodo adjuvantes caerulescentes. Ascosporae 7-8 x 2 pm, cylindricae. Paraphyses filiformes, vix incrassatae ad 2 pm, saepe prope basim furcatae. Ad pili infra foliorum Salicis capreae, Hatton, Warwks., Mar. 1973, M. C. Clark. Holotypus in Herb. K, W.D.G. 2278.

Thi s minute species, scarcely visible to the naked eye, occurred in quantity on many leaves of Salix caprea where it grows upon the felted

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Fig. 8. Mollisiafuscostriata. Median section (*enlargcd), ascospores, asci and paraphysis.

hairs of the underside. The excipulum is of hyaline, prismatic cells to 10 /lm across; these become smaller towards the margin which is of obtuse, elongate-clavate cells, 15-20 x 5 pm. These cell projections give the fungus, in fresh condition, a minutely verrucose appearance when seen from above. Describing a new species in this genus is somewhat daring but perhapsjustified, in this case, by the characteristic substrate upon which it grows. Hysteropezizella dowardensis sp.nov. (Fig. 6) Apothecia sparsissima, erumpentia, ad 0'3 mm lata; tota ochraceolutea, marginum pilis brevis, cylindraceis hispida. Excipulum hyalinum, textura-prismatica. Receptaculum strata crystallorum minutorum insidens. Asci ad SO x s·s ust», annulo minuto iodo adjuvante caerulescentes. Ascosporae octo, S-7 x l-l'S Jim, cylindraceo-fusiformae. 2guttulatae. Paraphyses superne aeutae, erassit, ad 6·S p,m, aseo ad 30 p,m superantes ; parte inferiori 4-5-septatae, guttulis luteolus repletae. In foliis siccis Caricis flaccae, Gt Doward, Herefordshire, Sept. 1972. Holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2234.

A little species tedious to collect as only about 10 % of the hundreds of leaves examined carried specimens and rarely as many as ten on anyone leaf. The fungus develops beneath a circular piece of host tissue which is later pushed up to stand vertically alongside the apothecium like an operculum. The receptacle is poorly-developed, c. 25-30/lID thick at the

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base, narrowing laterally and very thin around the hymenium; the base rests in a bed of minute crystals which separates it from the host tissue. Excipulum of hyaline textura-prismatica with cells to 8pm across, terminating, at the margin, in slightly narrowing, blunt hairs to 45 pm long and 3-4 pm thick at base. The stout, lanceolate paraphyses, exceeding the asci by 30 pm, form a striking feature. Trichodiscus heterotrichus sp.nov. (Fig. 7) Apothecia gregaria, sessilia, ad 500 I'm lata. Hymenio luteo-griseo; extus fusca, setis fuscis rigidis et pilis pallidiore flexuosis vestita. Excipulum textura-globularis. Asci ad 100 x 16 I'm, octospori, ampliter claviformes, sporis maturis fere impleti, annulo majuscule iodo adjuvante intense caerulescentes. Ascosporae 19--24x 6 I'm, latiuscule fusiformes, 1-3 septatae. Paraphyses filiformes, apicibus leniter incrassatis. Supra foliis marcidis Deschampsiae caespitosae, Yarningdale, Warwks., Dec. 1972, holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2260; Knavcnhill, Warwks., Feb. 1973; Alvecote, Warwks., Nov. 1973, M. C. Clark and Welsh St Donats, Glam., Sept. 1973, Autumn foray, M. B. Ellis.

This remarkable dermateaceous fungus is densely clothed with hairs of two distinct kinds. The dark-brown, rigid, thin-walled, multiseptate setae attain a length of 160 usu; from one or two pale, cylindrical basal cells, 4-5 pm across, they narrow gradually to an acute apex. The hairs, in contrast, are flexuous, pale-brown below and hyaline in the long twisted upper part; from 4-6 pm across at the base they narrow gradually to I-I'5pm at the apex; they are thin-walled, sparingly septate below and, although appreciably longer than the setae, scarcely project beyond them. The fungus has a small footstalk, to 50 pm across, of minute dark-brown cells; the basal excipulum, c. 20 pm thick, is of circular cells, to 9pm across, with rather thick dark-brown walls; laterally, the cells become smaller and paler and are hyaline at the narrow margin. Mollisia fuscostriata sp.nov. (Fig. 8) Apothecia gregaria, sub-erumpentia, globosa vel cupulata, ad 500 I'm lata. Hymenio humectatum pallido-brunneum. Extus pallida, verticale fusco-striata. Margo angustus, hyalinus. Excipulum textura-angularis, hyalinis vel stramineus, e basi c. 35 I'm latum paululum an marginem tenuatim. Asci 35-40 x 4'5-5'Sl'm, octospori, poro iodo adjuvante caerulescentes. Ascosporae 7-8 x 1-I'Sl'm, fusiformes. Paraphyses filiformes (2 I'm), apicem vix incrassatae, saepe acutae. Ad caules Filipendulae ulmariae, Wheatfen, Norfolk, May 1947, R. W. G. Dennis, holotypus in K, W.D.G. 2313; Isle of Tiree, Argyll, Aug. 1973, R. W. G. Dennis, W.D.G.23 12.

When this was first seen, some twenty-five years ago, it was put aside as a probably undescribed species; now an exactly matching collection justifies its description. The apothecia tend to remain globose and open only reluctantly. The outstanding character is the sub-marginal ring of about thirty more or less evenly-spaced, brown tufts standing out from the pale cortex; these are clusters of brown, cylindrical, 2-4-septate hyphae, to 30 x 4 pm and their presence gives the apothecium a striate appearance when seen from above. The apothecium has a hyaline footstalk, c. 50 pm across, which rests within the host tissue to a depth of 20 psu. The exci-

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pulum is of small angular cells four to five layers thick at the base narrowing to two layers near the margin which is of hyaline, cylindric-clavate cells to 15 x 3 pm. I wish to thank Dr R. W. G. Dennis for continued help and encouragement and Mr M. C. Clark for sending me his many interesting collections. REFERENCES

DENNIS, R. W. G. (1962). A reassessment of Belonidium Mont. & Dur. Persoonia 2,171-191. DENNIS, R. W. G. (1963). A redisposition of some Fungi ascribed to Hyaloscyphaceae. Kew Bulletin 17, 319-379. GRELET, L.J. (1953). Les Discomycetes de France d'apres la classification de Boudier. Revue de Mycologie 18, 35-36. RAITVlIR, A. (1970). Synopsis of the Hyaloscyphaceae. Academy ofSciences of the Estonian S.S.R., Tartu. REHM, H. (1908). Ascomyceti novi II. Annales mycologici 6,313-325. VELENOVSKY, J. (1934)' Praha: Monographia Discomyceten Bohemiae. VELENOVSKY,J. (1947). Praha: Novitates Mycologicae Novissimae.

(Accepted for publication 19 April 1974)

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