Sources of chemistry of the albian water under arid conditions. Application to the western regions of the Algerian Sahara

Sources of chemistry of the albian water under arid conditions. Application to the western regions of the Algerian Sahara

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Energy (2017) 000–000 446–452 EnergyProcedia Procedia119 00 (2017)

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International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 April 2017, Beirut Lebanon International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 April 2017, Beirut arid Lebanon Sources of of the albian conditions. Thechemistry 15th International Symposium onwater Districtunder Heating and Cooling

Application to the western regions of the Algerian Sahara. Sources of chemistry of the albian water under arid conditions. Assessing the ofregions using the heatAlgerian demand-outdoor Application to feasibility the western of the Sahara. c a b Slimane Abdeldjabbar Benhamida* ; Imed Eddine Nezli , and Rabah Kechiched temperature function for a long-term district heat demand forecast

a c ANRH – National WaterRresources Agency, Regional Directorate South, BPb n° 140, 30000, Ouargla, Algeria Slimane Abdeldjabbar Benhamida* Kechiched a a; Imed Eddine b Nezli , and Rabah c abc Geology of Sahara Laboraory, University, 30000, Algéria I. Andrića,b,c *, A. Pina , P. Ferrão , J. Ouargla Fournier ., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Correc a ANRH – National WaterRresources Agency, Directorate South, BP n° 140, 30000, Ouargla, Algeria E-mail :Regional [email protected] a abc Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal IN+ Center for Innovation, Geology of Sahara Laboraory, Ouargla University, 30000, Algéria E-mail : [email protected] b Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France E-mail : [email protected] E-mail : [email protected] c Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France E-mail : [email protected] E-mail : [email protected] Abstract a

Abstract

The study has been carried out in the zones of Tout, Gourara and Tidilket that are stretching on the two Algerian Abstract biggest the south and addressed Tamanraset). zoneasis one known bymost its hyper-arid climatefor anddecreasing sediments District states heatinginnetworks are(Adrar commonly in theThis literature of the effective solutions the The study gas has been carried in the later zones ofThese Tout, Gourara and Tidilket that are which stretching on two Algerian heterogeneity ofemissions its formations. This has one of the biggest aquifer in Africa ascribed to the thethrough Albian. is greenhouse from out the building sector. systems require high investments are returned theItheat biggest states the south climate (Adrar and and Tamanraset). Thisrenovation known byheat its demand hyper-arid climate and sediments recognized by Continental intercalary fossil aquifer aszone wellisthat is weakly renewable. The aquifer is decrease, wildly sales. Due to in the changed conditions and building policies, in the future could heterogeneity its formations. later has one the biggest in Africain ascribed to the Albian. It is subjected overexploitation inThis order to satisfy theofneeds of the aquifer agglomerations water. From hydro chemical prolongingbytheanof investment return period. recognized by the Continental intercalary and fossil aquifer well that isthe renewable. aquifer is wildly point of view, interaction water-rock is the responsible factor mineralization of The waters. The objective The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using as the heat about demand –weakly outdoor temperature function for heat demand subjected by an overexploitation inlocated order in to Lisbon satisfy the needs theusedagglomerations in The water. From chemical forecast. The district (Portugal), was as case study. district ishydro consisted of 665 of the present study isoftoAlvalade, highlight again the influence of the of lithology on athe chemistry of the Albian water, which buildings that vary in an both construction andresponsible typology. Three (low, medium, high) and district point of view, the in interaction water-rock is the factorweather about scenarios the mineralization of waters. Thethree objective was rarely studied arid context ofperiod Sahara. scenarios were developed (shallow, To estimate the error,toobtained heat demand values were ofrenovation the present study is to highlight again influence of deep). the lithology on in the chemistry Albian water, which Moreover, our contribution focuses on the intermediate, hydrogeochemical approach order putofinthe evidence the chemistry compared results from dynamic heat demand model, previouslyformations. developed and validated by the authors. was rarely with studied in an arid context of is Sahara. acquirement mechanism ofa waters that contained in aquifer’s The results that when weather is considered, margin of error could acceptable for some applications Moreover, our contribution focuses onofchange the in order tobeput incarbonates, evidence the chemistry The resultsshowed reflect that the only influence thehydrogeochemical aquifer matrix the richapproach in particles, evaporates, silicates and (the errorprovide in mechanism annual was 20% for all scenarios However, introducing renovation acquirement of waters thatthan is relatively contained in weather aquifer’s formations. fluorine thedemand aquifer withlower waters mineralized, rough considered). and with contents in after fluorine that exceed the scenarios, the reflect error value increased up to 59.5% on therich weather and renovation scenarios combination considered). The results that the influence of the (depending aquifer matrix in particles, evaporates, carbonates, silicates and admitted norms by the WHO. The value of slope increased average within the range of 3.8% to contents 8% per decade, that corresponds the fluorine provide thecoefficient aquifer with watersonrelatively mineralized, rough and up with in fluorine that exceedtothe ©decrease 2017 TheinAuthors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and admitted norms by the WHO. Key words: Arid climate - Continental Intercalary – Non-renewable resource – Hydrochemistry – Geochemistry. Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and Key words: Arid climate - Continental Intercalary – Non-renewable resource – Hydrochemistry – Geochemistry. 1. Introduction. improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

1. study Introduction. area situated in southern © The 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevierwest Ltd.of the country, it occupies the middle of the Sahara in more than 1200 km from theunder capital Algiers. Itofisthelimited, between the meridians: 3°14’ E andSymposium 1° 22’ W on andDistrict the parallels: 26° 28‘ Peer-review responsibility Scientific Committee of The 15th International Heating and The area situated in southern west of the country, it occupies the middle of the Sahara in more than 1200 and 30°study 19' North. Cooling.

km from the capital Algiers. It is limited, between the meridians: 3°14’ E and 1° 22’ W and the parallels: 26° 28‘ Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change and 30° 19' North. 1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility ofthe Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD).

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility ofthe Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). 1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.047

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The total surface is more than 190000 Km2 divided into 03 very distinct regions: The Gourara - The Touat and The Tidikelt known commonly by the term country of the foggaras (draining galleries). The desert climate type of the Sahara is characterized by weak temperatures in winter, however high in summer periods. Sometimes the minimal temperatures reach the 06°C and even less from December to February. Whereas the maximal is (more than 45°C) recorded in the month of August. Thus, even though the precipitations are not so considered (2 to 10 mm on average), they are often stormy, especially in to the north and northeast of the study area. (b)

(b)

Fig.1. Localization of Algeria in Africa (a) follow-up of the map of Algeria emerging from the position of the study area (b).

However, during the last years there was an overexploitation of water that may due to the demographic increases accompanied by a fast urban and agriculture extension alike. This can be interpreted by the existence of 7000 points of water exploitation points in terms of boreholes, traditional wells and foggaras. the unceasingly increases that is associated to an hyper arid and dry climate, alongside an insignificant refill of the order 3,55m3/s according to water resources survey in the Septentrional Sahara (1972) leads to the deterioration of the waters chemical quality of the aquifer and the gradual disappearance of its artesianism. In conjunction to this, it seems useful to conduct to a survey on the basis of an analytic data base of 450 samples of water, that relating to the hydrogeochemical aspect to the interactions water-rocks. 2.

Geology and hydrogeology of the survey zone.

Geologically the study region is part of the secondary western basin of the platform that spreads from the Saharan Atlas to the north till Hamada of Tinhert to the South, and Touat – Gourara in to the west. Taking into account the correlative geological sections established by the O.S.S. (2005), the stratigraphy of the region can be defined from the most recent (Quaternary) to the oldest (Paleozoic) whose formations correspond to eight major geological units reorganized according to the following scale: 1- Quaternary 2- Continental Terminal

3- Turonian 4- Cenomanian

5- Continental Intercalary 6- Jurassic

7- Trias 8- Paleozoic

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Fig.2. Sketch taken from the Geological Map of the Mesozoic Sahara (According to BUSSON 1965).

From the hydrogeological point of view, the Albian is the only free water table on the scale of the study area and continues in the lower Cretaceous formation. This aquifer consists mainly of sand, sometimes clayey green sandstone and gravel. The depth of the boreholes that collect this aquifer oscillates between 100 and 200m on average and the static level of this aquifer varies from North to South and from East to West. The variation is related to the ground level between 0.8 m and over 50 m, with an operating flow rate of 5 to 50 l / s. The direction of flow of the water is relatively north to south. 3.

Material and methods.

The data that are in their majority gotten from the inventory campaigns, samplings, measurement and physicochemical analysis, done under the auspice of the West Regional Direction of the ANRH of Adrar during the active period from 2011 to 2012.

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The analytic data treatment was notably elaborated by a set of suitable computer programs: • Surfer V12.626. 2014 (trial version), the Map Info V8.5. 2006 (trial version), Arc Gis 9.3 and the Global Mapper V15. 2014 blue Marble Geographic (trial version), for the establishment and treatment of the different maps. • RockWork V14. 2008 RockWark (trial version), for the development of the geological sections, the stratigraphic logs of the boreholes, in order to recognize the formations lithological nature of studied aquifer. • AqQa V1.1. 2005 Prairie City Computing (trial version), Diagram V6.48. 2015 Roland SIMLER Laboratory of Hydrogeology of Avignon (free version) and PhreqC V3.1.4. 2014 USGS, for the treatment of the hydro chemical data and the thermodynamic modeling. • Statistica V10.0.1.1011. 2011 STAT SOFT (trial version), for the statistical treatment and the graphic modeling of the analytic data. 4.

Results and discussions.

In order to determine the origin of the chemistry of aquifer water, several approaches have been proposed. The development of the lithological and stratigraphic model in 3D illustrates the spatial extension of the albian aquifer and the stratification of the different formations from the Devonian age up to the Plio-quaternary. Some discrepancies have been identified, allowing to predict the possible interconnections between formations (Devonian - Albian, Plio Quaternary) contributing to the acquisition of geochemical signature characteristics. Indeed, the upstream albian waters are fed by the Plio-Quaternary and are in direct contact with the primary lands (Devonian shale’s). (b)

(a)

Fig.3. (a - b) Positioning maps of logs boreholes used for the establishment of the correlative sections and the geological model.

The heterogeneity of the geological formations would have assigned to the waters of the Continental intercalaryalbian to the scale of the region of different chemical facies. However, the dominance of the exclusively evaporitic and more particularly chlorinated sodicfacies (72%) followed by the sulphatedsodicfacies(22%). Additionally, we record other secondary facies that stay negligible (6%). Nevertheless the presence of sulphatedsodicfacies to the detriment of a calcic sulphatedfacies intercepted knowing pertinently that the formation is rich in gypsums, it says that exchanges of bases can possibly modify the chemical composition of this water.

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Fig. 4.Spatial variation maps of 451 treated water samples (Measurement campaign 2012).

The phenomenon of bases exchanges Index (BEI) defined as being an indication of basis exchange that is a report between the exchanged ions and those of the same nature primitively existing in water. So IEB = 0 ……no basis exchanges. So IEB > 0 …… the Ca2+and Mg ions of the clays are exchanged by Na+and K+of water. So IEB < 0 …… the Na+and K ions of the rock are exchanged by Ca2+ and Mg2+of water. The obtained results of the BEI in the setting of this survey show that 94% of the totality of the samples present negative values against 06% positive, it means that the aquiferous formation generates high concentrations in Na+ to the detriment of the Ca2+ and Mg2+. According to the diagram of Gibbs (1970), one notices that the majority of the samples of the 3 localities are localized in the domain of change the Rock reservoir with a major influence of the chlorides, and therefore the influence of the halite evaporitic matrix (chlorinated sodic facies dominant) what explains the tendency of waters toward the branch evaporation. We also notice that the report Clvs (Cl+HCO 3 ) begins to increase from the value 0,5 and becomes more pronounced beyond this value while surpassing 0,9 what shows that the bicarbonates continue to decrease to participate in the precipitation of carbonates, and consequently the activities of the cationsCa2+and Mg2+ are going to decrease automatically because they not only undergo a stern control by carbonates but also by the sulphates (gypsums), and as it has also been noted that the deficit of these 2 cationsis allocated to the bases exchanges,

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therefore the influence of the silicate matrix on the mineralization of the waters of the tablecloth. Indeed, the diagram of Korjinsky, that takes into account the SiO 2 element, shows that the set of the samples of albian water of the 3 localities is located in the domain of the stability of the Kaolinite.

Fig.5. Diagram of Gibbs showing the origin of chemical element of the 451 water samples

Fig.6. Diagram of Korjinsky (logNa+/H+ vs logH4SiO4) the for groundwater of study

General conclusion. The treatment and the synthesis of the possessed data permitted us to deduce several processes that intervene in the origin of the chemistry of the waters of the tablecloth. The dominance of the evaporitic matrix, that generates some very elevated concentrations in Cl- and SO 4 2-, on the carbonated matrix that stretches toward the precipitation downstream the tablecloth following the reduction of the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The hydrolysis of the silicates reveals the influence of the primary lands (shale of the lower Devonian and quartzite), as well as the change of the Cenomanian clays in surface confirms the influence of the matrix silicate on the mineralization of the waters of the tablecloth. References. [01] ANRH – SouthWest Regional Directorate Adrar DRSO. (2008), Project to realize a 600 ML piezometer at the In Salah field [02] OSS,Aquifer system of the Northern Sahara. Ed. Observatory of the Sahara and the Sahel, Tunis, (2003), p.147. [02] ANRH – SouthWest Regional Directorate Adrar DRSO. (2011), Interpretation of data from pumping tests of drilled holes along the Touat Gourara - Tidikelt area. [03] ANRH – (2002), Inventory of points of water points and investigation of flows extracted from the In Salah area (W of Tamanrasset). P, 43. [04] A.G.P Martin, (1908): The Saharan oases (Gourara-Touat-Tidikelt), Ed. SNED - Algerian printing, p, 406. Algiers. [05] Aboubaker M, (2012) :Characterization of a volcanic aquifer system by hydrogeochemical coupled approach and numerical modeling. Example of the basalt aquifer of Dalha, southwest of the Republic of Djibouti.Thesis.Institute of chemistry of the media and materials of Poitiers.France. p. 239. [06] Conrad G. (1969), The post-Hercynian continental evolution of the Algerian Sahara. Arid Zone Research Center.Geological series No. 10, CNRS, Paris, p, 527. [07] Conrad G. (1975), Isotopes in the waters of the North-Western Sahara (Algeria), IAEA Report, p. 74. [08] Castany G. (1982), Principles and methods of hydrogeology, Dunod University Bordas Paris. France, 237 p. [09] CDARS, (1999): Study of the Master Plan for the Development of the Saharan Regions, Water Resources: Overall Knowledge, Ouargla, p, 154. [10] Dunald Langmuir. (1997), Aqueous Environnemental Geochemistry, Imprimerie des Etats Unies d’Amérique,

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Université de Colorado. P, 618. [11] ERESS (1972), Study of the Water Resources of the Septentrional Sahara, (falls n°02), p. 122. [12] Fabre J. (2005), Geology of Western and Central Sahara, Royal Museum of Central Africa - Belgium, 610p [13] Fabre J. (1976), Introduction to the geology of the Algerian Sahara. SNED, Algeria, 422p. [14] OuldBaba Sy, M., Besbes. M., Holocene recharge and present recharge of the Saharian aquifers.A study by numerical modeling, International Symposium Management of large aquifers - May 30-June 1, (2006), Dijon, France. [15] OSS,AquiferSystem of the Northern Sahara. Ed. Observatory of the Sahara and the Sahel,Tunis,(2003),p. 147. [16] UNESCO,ProjectReg 100. Study of the water resources of the northern Sahara. Report on the results of the project, Paris, (1972),p 100.