Spatial variation of the water rising and water table salinity in the Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara)

Spatial variation of the water rising and water table salinity in the Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara)

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Sustainability, TMREES17, Aprilfor 2017, Beirut Lebanon www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia Internationaland Conference on Energy Technologies and21-24 Materials Renewable Energy, Environment Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 Aprilfor 2017, Beirut Lebanon Procedia (2017) 571–578 Energy Procedia119 00 (2017) 000–000 Internationaland Conference on Technologies and Materials Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 April 2017, Beirut Lebanon International Conference Technologies and21-24 Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment Spatial variation ofonthe water rising and tableLebanon salinity in the www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia and Sustainability, TMREES17, Aprilwater 2017, Beirut Spatial variation of the water rising and table salinity in and Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 Aprilwater 2017, Beirut Lebanon International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment Spatial variation ofonthe water rising and water tableLebanon salinity in the the International Conference Technologies and21-24 Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) and Sustainability, TMREES17, April 2017, Beirut Spatial variation of the water rising and water table salinity in the Internationaland Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment Sustainability, TMREES17, 21-24 Aprilwater 2017, Beirut Lebanon Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) Spatial variation of the water rising and table salinity in Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) and Sustainability, 21-24 Aprilwater 2017, Beirut Lebanon Spatial variation of the water rising table salinity in the the a,b* b and a c Basin ofTMREES17, Ouargla (Algerian Sahara)

I. Reciouia,b*, M. Daddi Bouhounb, D. Boutoutaoua, A. Mihoubc Spatial of the water rising and water table salinity in of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) I. ReciouiBasin Daddi Bouhoun Boutoutaou Spatial variation variation of,, M. the water rising and water table salinity in the the a,b* b, D. a, A. Mihoub c Basin of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) I. Recioui M. Daddi Bouhoun , D. Boutoutaou , A. Mihoub Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Exploitation and valorization of Natural Resources in Arid Zones. a,b* b a c 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling Spatial variation of the water rising and water table salinity in the I. The Recioui , M. Daddi Bouhoun , D. Boutoutaou , A. Mihoub of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30 Univ.Basin Ouargla, Exploitation and valorization of Algeria. Natural Resources a,b* Lab. b 000, ain Arid Zones. c of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) I. Recioui , M. Daddi Bouhoun , D. Boutoutaou , A. Mihoub Univ.Basin Ouargla, Lab. Exploitation and valorization of Natural Resources in Arid Zones. a,b* b a c Univ., Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection and Semi Arid Zones P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30, 000, Algeria. I. Recioui M. Daddi Bouhoun D.inof Arid Boutoutaou A. Zones. Mihoub of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara) Univ.Basin Ouargla, Lab. Exploitation and valorization Natural Resources in, Arid P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30 Algeria. P.Box 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. Univ.feasibility Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection in Arid andheat Semi Ariddemand-outdoor Zones a,b* b 000, ain c Assessing the of using the Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Exploitation and valorization of Natural Resources Arid Zones. I. M. Daddi Bouhoun D. Boutoutaou ,, Arid A. Mihoub P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. a,b* b, Regions aZones Univ., Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection in Arid and Semi Arid Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. c P.Box 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. Univ. Ouargla, Lab.Daddi Exploitation and valorization of Natural Resources in Zones. I. Recioui Recioui , M. Bouhoun , D. Boutoutaou A. Mihoub P.Box. 511 Ouargla Ouargla 30 Algeria. Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection Arid and Semi AridaZones a,b* b 000, P.Box 511 30 000, Algeria. Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. c forecast P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30, Regions 000, Algeria. I. Recioui M. Bouhoun D.ininof district Boutoutaou , Arid A. Mihoub temperature function for a long-term heat demand Univ. Ouargla, Lab.Daddi Exploitation and valorization Natural in Zones. Univ., Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection Arid andResources Semi Arid Zones P.Box 511 Ouargla 30 Regions 000, Algeria. Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Exploitation and valorization of Arid Natural Arid Zones. Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection in andResources Semi Aridin Zones a a a a

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P.Box. 000, Algeria. P.BoxResearch 511 Ouargla 30 Regions Center of Scientific and Technical on Arid (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. a Univ. Ouargla, Lab.Technical Exploitation and valorization of Arid Natural in Arid Zones. P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30 Regions 000, Algeria. b c P.Box Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem in andResources Semi Arid Zones Center and Research on Arid Biskra 07000, a,b,c of Scientific a a Protection b(CRSTRA). cAlgeria. c b c P.Box. 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection in Arid and Semi Arid Zones Abstract Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid Regions (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. P.Box 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. b Univ. Ouargla, Lab. Ecosystem Protection in Arid and Semi Arid Zones P.Box 511 Ouargla 30 000, Algeria. c Abstract Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid Regions (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. a c Abstract P.Box 511 of Ouargla 30Superior 000, Algeria. Center ofTechnology Scientificfor and Technical Research on Arid Regions (CRSTRA). 07000, IN+ Centerof forwaters Innovation, andboth Policy Research - Instituto Técnico,that Av.Biskra Rovisco Pais 1,industries 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal The increase requirements the needs drinking water supply the needs ofAlgeria. and agriculture Abstract b c Center of Scientific and Technical Research on Arid Dreyfous Regions (CRSTRA). Biskra 07000, Algeria. Veolia Recherche &hydraulics Innovation, 291 Avenue Daniel, 78520 Limay, France The increase of waters requirements for both the needs of drinking water supply that the needs of industries and agriculture has pushed the services concerned of the to develop a number of drilling capturing the aquifers of terminal Abstract c The increaseDépartement of waters forthe bothhydraulics needstoof develop drinking supply that theKastler, needs 44300 of industries and of agriculture Systèmes Énergétiques etthe Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4of ruedrilling Alfred Nantes, France Abstract has pushed the servicesrequirements concerned of awater number capturing the aquifers terminal c

I. Andrić

*, A. Pina , P. Ferrão , J. Fournier ., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Corre

complex (CT)ofand the continental intercalary (CI). Thisofexploitation of groundwater has needs provedoftoindustries be excessive which has The increase waters requirements forthe bothhydraulics the needs drinkingawater supply that the and of agriculture has pushed theand services concerned of develop number of and drilling the aquifers terminal Abstract complex (CT) theofcontinental intercalary (CI). Thistoofexploitation of has groundwater has capturing provedof toindustries be excessive which has created an imbalance the water table and subsequently this situation led contributes in a direct way to the water The increase of waters requirements for both the needs drinking water supply that the needs and agriculture has pushed theand services concernedintercalary of the hydraulics develop a number of drilling the aquifers ofwhich terminal Abstract complex (CT) theof continental (CI). Thistoofexploitation of has groundwater has capturing provedof toindustries be excessive has The increase of waters requirements for both the needs drinking water supply that the needs and agriculture created an imbalance the water table and subsequently this situation led and contributes in a direct way to the water table rising in Ouargla basin. has pushed the services concerned of the hydraulics to develop a number of drilling capturing the aquifers of terminal complexan(CT) and theofcontinental intercalary (CI). This exploitation of has groundwater has provedintoa be excessive which has Abstract created imbalance the water table and subsequently this situation led and contributes direct way to the water has services concernedintercalary of toofexploitation develop awater number of drilling capturing the excessive aquifers of terminal The increase of waters requirements for bothhydraulics the needs drinking supply that needs oftoindustries andsoils agriculture tablepushed rising inthe Ouargla basin. study shows that the of the water rising has had serious the the physical of the complex and theof continental (CI). This ofeffects groundwater has proveddegradation which has Abstract created an(CT) imbalance theproblem water table this situation has ledonand in industries a be direct way theby water The increase of waters requirements for and bothsubsequently the needs ofexploitation drinking water supply thatcontributes the needs of andtoagriculture table rising in Ouargla basin. complex (CT) and the continental intercalary (CI). This of groundwater has proved to be excessive which has has the services concerned of hydraulics to had develop acompact, number of drilling capturing the aquifers ofthe terminal The pushed study shows that the problem of the water rising has serious effects onand thecontributes physical degradation of soils congestion that it causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, as well as the chemical degradation by the created an imbalance of the water table and subsequently this situation has led in a direct way to water table rising shows inthe Ouargla basin. The increase of waters requirements for bothhydraulics the needs drinking supply that the needs degradation of andsoils agriculture has services concerned of the toof had develop awater number ofonand drilling capturing aquifers terminal The pushed study the problem of study water rising has serious thecontributes physical of by the created an(CT) imbalance of the water and subsequently this has led intoindustries athe direct way toof the water complex and the continental intercalary (CI). This exploitation groundwater has be excessive which has congestion that it that causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, asis well as proved the chemical degradation by the salinization ofOuargla soils. The of table the also show that thesituation riskcompact, ofofeffects salinity proportional with the piezometric level ofthe table rising in basin. The pushed study shows that theresults problem of the water rising had serious effects on the physical degradation of by has the District heating networks are commonly addressed inhas the literature as one ofof the most effective solutions for soils decreasing has the services concerned of hydraulics to develop a number drilling capturing the aquifers of terminal complex (CT) and the continental intercalary (CI). This exploitation of groundwater has proved to be excessive which congestion that it causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, compact, as well as the chemical degradation by the table rising in Ouargla basin. created an imbalance of the water table and subsequently this situation has led and contributes in a direct way to the water salinization of soils. The results of the study also show that the risk of salinity is proportional with the piezometric level of water table depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds the authorized standards of water salinity, for instance the The study shows that the problem of water rising has had serious effects on the physical degradation of soils by greenhouse gas emissions from the building These systems require high investments which are returned through the congestion that it causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, compact, well as proved the chemical degradation bywater the complex and the intercalary (CI). This exploitation ofeffects groundwater has be excessive has created an(CT) imbalance ofcontinental the water table andsector. subsequently this situation has ledas and contributes into a the direct way towhich the salinization ofOuargla soils. The results offrom: the study also show that the risk of salinity is proportional with piezometric level ofheat The study shows that the problem of water rising has had serious on the physical degradation of soils by the table rising in basin. water table depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds the authorized standards of water salinity, for instance the degree of water table salinity vary 2.4 g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 in some regions of Ouargla Basin. congestion that it changed causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, compact, well asdemand the chemical degradation by the sales. Due climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat the future could decrease, salinization ofthe soils. The results of table the study also show that the risk of salinity is proportional with piezometric level of created an to imbalance of the water andtoo subsequently this situation has ledas and contributes ininasalinity, direct way to the water table rising in Ouargla basin. water table depth. The obtained values are high and exceeds the authorized standards of water for instance the congestion that it causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, compact, as well as the chemical degradation by the The study shows that theresults problem of study water rising hasthat hadthe serious effects the physical degradation of soils level of degree of water table salinity varyoffrom: 2.4 g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 in some on regions of Ouargla Basin. salinization ofOuargla soils. The the also show risk of salinity isstandards proportional with the piezometric water table depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds the authorized of water salinity, for instance the prolonging the investment return period. table rising in basin. The study shows that the problem of water rising has had serious effects on the physical degradation of soils by degree ofThe water table salinity vary 2.4 Ltd. g.l-1 and reaches 150risk g.l-1 insalinity someasregions of Ouargla Basin. salinization of soils. The results offrom: the study also show that the of is well proportional with the piezometric level of congestion that it The causes and the formation of gypseous crusts, compact, as the chemical degradation by the the © 2017 Authors. Published by Elsevier water table depth. obtained values too high and exceeds the authorized of water salinity, for instance The main paper isvary tothe assess the feasibility of using the heat demand –standards outdoor temperature function heat degree ofscope water table salinity from: 2.4 g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 in someas regions of Ouargla Basin. The study shows that the and problem of are water rising has hadcrusts, serious effects on the physical degradation of for soils congestion thatof itthis causes formation of gypseous compact, well as the chemical degradation bydemand the water table depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds the authorized standards of water salinity, for instance the salinization of soils. The results of study also show that the risk of salinity is proportional with the piezometric level of © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). degree ofThe water table salinity vary 2.4 in g.l-1 reaches 150risk g.l-1 some of Ouargla Basin. forecast. district of Alvalade, located Lisbon (Portugal), was used as regions a well case study. district is consisted congestion that it causes and the formation of and gypseous compact, as the The chemical degradation by of the salinization of soils. The results offrom: the study also show that crusts, the ofin is proportional with the piezometric level of665 © 2017table The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. degree of water table salinity vary 2.4Ltd. g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 insalinity someasregions of Ouargla Basin. water depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds thefor authorized standards of water salinity, for instance the Peer-review under responsibility offrom: the Euro-Mediterranean Institute Sustainable Development (EUMISD). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier © 2017table The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. buildings thatdepth. vary inThe both construction period andshow typology. weather scenarios (low, medium, and three salinization of soils. results of the Euro-Mediterranean study also theThree risk of salinity isstandards proportional with the high) piezometric leveldistrict of water The obtained values are too high andthat exceeds thefor authorized of water salinity, for instance the Peer-review under responsibility of the Institute Sustainable Development (EUMISD). Peer-review under responsibility offrom: the Euro-Mediterranean Institute forinSustainable Development degree ofThe water table salinity vary 2.4 Ltd. g.l-1 andAlgeria reaches 150 g.l-1 some regions of Ouargla(EUMISD). Basin. Keywords: water table; water rising; Salinization; Ouargla; © 2017table Authors. Published by Elsevier renovation scenarios were developed intermediate, deep). To estimate theDevelopment error, obtained heat demand valuesthe were Peer-review under responsibility offrom: the(shallow, Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable (EUMISD). water depth. The obtained values are too high and exceeds the authorized standards of water salinity, for instance degree of water table salinity vary 2.4 g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 in some regions of Ouargla Basin. © 2017 The Authors. Published Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: water table; water rising; by Salinization; Ouargla; Algeria Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). Peer-review under responsibility offrom: theheat Euro-Mediterranean compared with results fromrising; a dynamic demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors. degree of water table salinity vary 2.4 g.l-1 and reaches 150 g.l-1 in some regions of Ouargla Basin. Keywords: water table; water Salinization; Ouargla; Algeria Peer-review under responsibility of Elsevier the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Ltd. 1. Introduction The results showed that when only weather considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications Keywords: water table; water rising; Salinization; Ouargla;isAlgeria © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier change Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). Keywords: water table;demand water rising; Salinization; Ouargla; 1. Introduction (the errorThe in annual wasby lower thanLtd. 20% forAlgeria all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation © 2017 Authors. Published Elsevier Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Keywords: water table; water rising; Salinization; Ouargla; Algeria Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). 1. Introduction scenarios, theunder error responsibility value increased up 59.5% (depending on the weather renovation scenarios combination Peer-review the to Euro-Mediterranean for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). The problems of salted soilofand irrigation with salt Institute waters are not and specific to a particular region of theconsidered). world. 1. Introduction Keywords: water table; water rising; Salinization; Ouargla; Algeria The value ofknown slope coefficient increased onHungary) average within the range 3.8% up toHowever per decade, that is corresponds to the The problems salted soil and irrigation with saltwell waters specific to8%a particular region ofparticularly the world. 1. Introduction Keywords: water table;of water rising; Salinization; Ouargla; Algeria They are in Europe (Russia, as as are in ofnot arid area. this issue Theare problems ofin salted soilSalinization; and irrigation with saltwell waters are not specific to a particular regionisofparticularly world.and 1. Introduction decrease inwater the number of heating hours of Hungary) 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination ofthe weather Keywords: table; water rising; Ouargla; Algeria They known Europe (Russia, as as in arid area. However this issue widespread in arid and semi-arid zones and it has been studied especially in these regions. It is estimated that Theare problems ofinsalted soil(Russia, and irrigation with as saltwell waters not to a particular regionisofparticularly the world.a They known Europe Hungary) as are inespecially aridspecific area.for However this issue 1. Introduction renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased 7.8-12.7% persalinity decade (depending widespread in arid and semi-arid zones and it has been studied in these regions. It is estimated thatonathe The problems of salted soil and irrigation with salt waters are not specific to a particular region of the world. third of the 12 million hectares of irrigated land in the world is affected by the problems of [1]. 1. Introduction They are known inand Europe (Russia, Hungary) as well as are inespecially aridspecific area. However this issue isofconsidered, particularly widespread in arid semi-arid zones and it has been studied in these regions. It is estimated that aand The problems of salted soil and irrigation with salt waters not to a particular region the world. coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios third theand 12 million hectares of the irrigated in as the world affected byinput the problems of salinity [1].particularly They are known inandEurope (Russia, Hungary) well asisrequires in arid an area. this issue iscultures 1. Introduction In of arid semi-arid regions, irrigation of salty soils of water above need.a widespread in arid semi-arid zones andland itwith has been studied especially inHowever these regions. Itregion istheestimated that third ofare theaccuracy 12 million hectares ofestimations. irrigated land in as the world affected by the problems of salinity They known Europe Hungary) well asisare in aridspecific area. However this issue is[1]. improve the ofsalted heat demand The problems ofin soil(Russia, and irrigation salt waters not to a particular ofparticularly the world.

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It istheestimated that They are known inand Europe (Russia, Hungary) well asis in aridspecific area. this issue iscultures particularly This surplus laundry salts and repels depth [2]. third of the 12 million hectares of irrigated in the world is affected by the problems of salinity [1]. problems of salted soil and irrigation with salt waters are not to a particular region of the world. The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make that irrigation is They are known in Europe (Russia, Hungary) as well asisrequires in arid an area. However this issue iscultures particularly Insurplus arid and semi-arid regions, the irrigation of salty soils input of water above theestimated need. ©third 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This volume laundry salts and repels in depth [2]. of the 12 million hectares of irrigated land in the world affected by the problems of salinity [1]. widespread in arid and semi-arid zones and it has been studied especially in these regions. It is that a The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make that irrigation is In arid and semi-arid regions, the irrigation of salty soils requires an input of water above the cultures need. They are known in Europe (Russia, Hungary) as well as in arid area. However this issue is particularly essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation of the salt waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin underground) widespread involume arid and semi-arid zones andCommittee itin has been studied especially in Symposium these regions. It isthe estimated that a This surplus laundry salts and repels depth [2]. Peer-review under responsibility of thethe Scientific ofsoils The 15th International onmake District Heating and The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) that irrigation is In arid and semi-arid regions, irrigation of salty requires an input of water above cultures need. third of the 12 million hectares of irrigated land in the world is affected by the problems of salinity [1]. essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation ofisthe salt waters g.l-1) (of origin underground) This surplus laundry salts and resulted repels depth [2]. widespread involume arid and semi-arid zones andland itin has been studied especially in (2-8 these regions. It is that estimated that a after useclimatic in12 an endoreic system has the water table rising, salinization and of the hydromorphic soils, third of the million hectares of irrigated in the world affected by the problems salinity [1]. Cooling. The conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make irrigation is essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation ofrequires the salt an waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin underground) This surplus volume laundry salts the andirrigation repels in depth [2]. In arid and semi-arid regions, of salty soils input of water above the cultures need. after use in an endoreic system has resulted the water table rising, salinization and the hydromorphic soils, The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make that irrigation is third of the 12 million hectares of irrigated land in the world is affected by the problems of salinity [1]. putting at risk the quality of the soil and the environment [6]. In arid andan semi-arid regions, the irrigation of soils input of water the need. essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation ofrequires the salt an waters g.l-1) (of origin underground) after use in endoreic system has resulted water table rising, salinization and above the hydromorphic soils, The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas ofthe thesalty desert (precipitation <100(2-8 mm/year) make thatcultures irrigation is This surplus volume laundry salts and repels in depth [2]. putting at risk the quality of the and the the environment [6]. essential for agricultural development. But evacuation ofmillion the salthectares, waters g.l-1) (of origin arid and semi-arid regions, the irrigation of salty soils requires an input(2-8 of awater above the cultures need. Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change Insurplus 1996, the irrigated area insoil world represents 275 or little lesshydromorphic than aunderground) sixth of the This volume laundry salts and repels in depth [2]. after use in an endoreic system has resulted the water table rising, salinization and the soils, putting at risk the quality of the soil and the environment [6]. essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation of the salt waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin underground) The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make that irrigation is In 1996, the irrigated area in the world represents 275 million hectares, ormm/year) a little less than ofsoils, the after use in anthe system has resulted the water table rising, salinization and the hydromorphic This surplus volume laundry salts and repels in depth [2]. cultivated land. Itendoreic must beof said that, under arid climate, irrigation appears indispensable [15]. The climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 make thataa sixth irrigation is putting at risk quality the soil and theanthe environment [6]. In 1996, the irrigated area in the world represents 275 million hectares, or a little less than sixth of the after use in an endoreic system has resulted the water table rising, salinization and the hydromorphic soils, essential for agricultural development. But evacuation of the salt waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin underground) cultivated land. Itirrigated must bedevelopment. said that, under arid climate, irrigation appears indispensable [15]. putting at risk the quality of thein soil and theanthe environment [6]. The1996, climatic conditions hyper-arid areas of the desert (precipitation <100 mm/year) make thataunderground) irrigation is essential for agricultural But evacuation of the salt waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin In the area the world represents 275 million hectares, or a little less than sixth of the cultivated land. Itendoreic must be+213-664-141-500; said that, anenvironment arid climate, irrigation appears indispensable [15]. putting at in risk the quality of thein soil and the [6]. after use an system hasunder resulted the water275 table rising, salinization and the hydromorphic soils, * Corresponding author. Tel.: fax: +213-29-279-828. In 1996, the irrigated area the world represents million hectares, or a little less than a sixth of the essential for agricultural development. But the evacuation of the salt waters (2-8 g.l-1) (of origin underground) after use in an Itendoreic system hasunder resulted theclimate, water275 table rising, salinization and the hydromorphic cultivated land. must beof said that, anenvironment arid irrigation appears indispensable [15]. 1996, the irrigated area the world represents million hectares, or a little less than a sixth ofsoils, the putting at in risk the quality thein soil and the E-mail address: [email protected] * In Corresponding author. Tel.: fax: +213-29-279-828. cultivated land. Itendoreic must be+213-664-141-500; said that, anLtd. arid irrigation appears indispensable after use an system has resulted theclimate, water [6]. table rising, salinization and the[15]. hydromorphic soils, 1876-6102 © risk 2017 The Authors. Published byunder Elsevier putting at the quality of the soil and the environment [6]. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax: +213-29-279-828. cultivated land. Itirrigated must bearea said in that, under anrepresents arid climate, irrigation appears indispensable [15]. In 1996, the the world 275 million hectares, or a little less than a sixth of the E-mail address: [email protected] putting atunder risk the quality of theScientific the [6]. Peer-review responsibility of the Committee of The 15th International Symposium or on District and Cooling. * In Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax:environment +213-29-279-828. 1996, the irrigated area insoil theand world represents 275 million hectares, a littleHeating less than a sixth of the E-mail address: [email protected] cultivated land. It must be said that, under an arid climate, irrigation appears indispensable [15]. * In Corresponding author. Tel.: fax: +213-29-279-828. E-mail address: [email protected] 1996, the area in theby world 275irrigation million appears hectares,indispensable or a little less than a sixth of the 1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published Elsevier Ltd.climate, cultivated land. Itirrigated must be+213-664-141-500; said that, under anrepresents arid [15]. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax: +213-29-279-828. E-mail address: [email protected] Peer-review under responsibility of thethat, Euro-Mediterranean Institute irrigation for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). cultivated land. It must be said under an arid climate, appears indispensable [15]. E-mail address: [email protected] * Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax: +213-29-279-828. 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.082 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax:Ltd. +213-29-279-828. 1876-6102© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier E-mail address: [email protected] * Corresponding author. Tel.: +213-664-141-500; fax:Ltd. +213-29-279-828. E-mail address: [email protected] Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). 1876-6102© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier 1876-6102© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). E-mail address: [email protected] Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean 1876-6102© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean 1876-6102© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD). Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean

2 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 2 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 2 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 2 The irrigation usually I. Recioui, M. Daddi D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 000–000 root zone. The causes the Bouhoun, water rising in the soil until the congestion of(2017) the cultures irrigation usually causes the water in the soil until the congestion of the cultures zone. 2 The I. Recioui, M. Daddi D. arid Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 000–000 saline of water table, particularly in rising the of the world, theroot accumulation Thenature irrigation usually causes the Bouhoun, water rising inand the semi-arid soil until regions the congestion of(2017) the causes cultures root zone. The The irrigation usually causes the Bouhoun, water rising inand the semi-arid soil until regions the congestion of(2017) the causes cultures root zone. The saline of water table, particularly in the of the world, the accumulation 2 Thenature I. Recioui, M. Daddi D. arid Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 000–000 of salts in the root zone [10]. saline nature of water table, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, causes the accumulation Thenature irrigation usually causes the water rising the soil Procedia until regions the119congestion of the causes cultures zone. The 572 I. etinal. / Energy (2017) 571–578 saline water particularly inRecioui the arid and semi-arid of the world, theroot accumulation of salts in the of root zonetable, [10].

Thenature consequence istable, obvious: each time thatarid it in uses littleuntil saltyregions to the irrigate, there must beaccumulation atzone. the same of salts in the of root zone [10]. irrigation usually causes the water theasemi-arid soil thewater congestion of the cultures The saline water particularly in rising the and of world, causes theroot of salts in the root zone [10]. The consequence is obvious: each time that it uses aasoil little salty water to irrigate, there must be at the same The irrigation usually causes the water rising in the until the congestion of the cultures root zone. The time ensure the associated drainage, it means that the installation of large ditches to evacuate waters in excess, consequence is obvious: each time that it uses little salty water to irrigate, there must be at the same saline nature of water table, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, causes the accumulation of salts in thethe root zone [10]. The consequence istable, obvious: each time thatthat it in uses asemi-arid littleuntil saltyregions water to irrigate, there must beaccumulation atzone. theexcess, same time ensure associated drainage, it means the installation of large ditches to evacuate waters in The irrigation usually causes the water rising the soil the congestion of the cultures root The saline nature of water particularly in the arid and of the world, causes the and even the pumping to extract water the soil before goes back up in surface time ensure associated drainage, ittime means thefrom installation largeitto ditches to evacuate waters excess, of salts inorganizing thethe root zone [10]. The consequence is obvious: each thatthat it uses a little saltyof water irrigate, there must be[7]. atin same time ensure the associated drainage, it means that the installation of largeitofditches to evacuate waters intheexcess, and even organizing the pumping to extract water from the soil before goes back up in surface [7]. saline nature of water table, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions the world, causes the accumulation of salts in the root zone [10]. In Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected bythat the 2% ofitto the total area [13]. effect, and even organizing the pumping to extract the water thenearly soil before goes back up in surface [7]. The consequence is obvious: each itsalinization, uses a little saltyof water irrigate, there must be atinIn theexcess, same time ensure the associated drainage, ittime means that thefrom installation large ditches tosurface evacuate waters and even the pumping to extract the water from thenearly soil before itto goes back up in surface [7]. In Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected by the salinization, 2% of the total surface area [13]. In effect, of salts inorganizing the root zone [10]. The consequence is obvious: each time that it uses a little salty water irrigate, there must be at the same the degree of water table salinity varies from: 6 to 7 g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5 to 6 g per liter in the In Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected by the salinization, nearly 2% of the total surface area [13]. In effect, time ensure the associated drainage, it means that the installation of large ditches to evacuate waters in excess, and even organizing the pumping tovaries extract the water from theliter soil in before it goes backsurface up intosurface [7]. In Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected bythat the salinization, nearly 2% of the total area [13]. In effect, the degree of water table salinity from: 6 to 7 g per the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5 6 g per liter in the The consequence is obvious: each time it uses a little salty water to irrigate, there must be at the same time ensure the associated drainage, it means that the installation of large ditches to evacuate waters in excess, Saoura; 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in the water of the Albian aquifer, in the Sahara; in the South Tunisian it reaches 4.7 theIndegree of water table salinity varies from: 6 to 7 g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5 to 6 g per liter in the and even organizing the pumping to extract water from the soil before it goes back up in surface [7]. Africa, nearly 40 Mha aretheaffected bythe theAlbian nearly 2% of the total surface area [13]. In effect, the degree of water table salinity varies from: 6salinization, tothe7from g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5in tosurface 6 waters g per liter in 4.7 the Saoura; 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in water of aquifer, in the Sahara; in the South Tunisian it reaches time ensure the associated drainage, it means that installation of large ditches to evacuate in excess, and even organizing the pumping to extract the water the soil before it goes back up [7]. gSaoura; in Ksar Khilane, 6.2 g to Zarzis and 3 g to 4.5 g in Gabès [14, 21, 22]. 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in the water of Albian aquifer, in the Sahara; in the South Tunisian it reaches 4.7 In Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected by the salinization, nearly 2% of the total surface area [13]. In effect, the degree of water table salinity varies from: 6 to 7 g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5 to 6 g per liter in the Saoura; 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in the water of the Albian aquifer, in the Sahara; in the South Tunisian it reaches 4.7 ggand inIneven Ksar Khilane, 6.2 ggin to Zarzis and 33 ggthat to 4.5 ggwater in Gabès [14, 21, 22]. organizing the pumping to extract the water the soil before it goes back up intosurface [7]. Africa, nearly 40 Mha aretheaffected bythe theAlbian nearly of the total surface area [13]. Inand effect, research works show the rising occupy a2% large areas ofSouth the Sahara the Ksar Khilane, 6.2 toAlgeria Zarzis and to 4.5 in [14, 21,the 22]. theinThe degree of water table salinity varies from: 6salinization, to Gabès 7from g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5northern 6 g per liter in 4.7 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in water of aquifer, in Sahara; in the Tunisian it reaches gSaoura; in Ksar Khilane, 6.2 g to Zarzis and 3 g to 4.5 g in Gabès [14, 21, 22]. research works in Algeria show that the water occupy aa2% large areas of the Sahara the Indegree Africa, nearly 40 Mha are affected bythe thegypseous salinization, nearly of the total surface [13]. Inand effect, theinThe of water table salinity varies from: to Gabès 7 rising g tablecloths, per liter in22]. the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5northern to area 6 g per liter in 4.7 the soil presents accumulation ofthe limestone [3, 23, 24, The research works show the rising occupy large areas ofSouth the northern Sahara and 1.2 toan 2.5 g6.2 per liter in water of Albian aquifer, in21,the Sahara; in 25]. the Tunisian it reaches gSaoura; Ksar Khilane, gin toAlgeria Zarzis and 3 gthat toand 4.5 g6water in [14, The research works in Algeria show that thegypseous water rising occupy a[3, large areas ofSouth the northern Sahara and the soil presents an accumulation of limestone and tablecloths, 23, 24, 25]. the degree of water table salinity varies from: 6 to 7 g per liter in the Ouadi R'hir; 2.5 to 6 g per liter in the Saoura; 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in the water of the Albian aquifer, in the Sahara; in the Tunisian it reaches 4.7 basin of accumulation Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem water rising. This latterand is due soil presents an of limestone tablecloths, 23,of24, 25]. g inThe Ksar Khilane, 6.2 ginto Zarzis and 3 gthat toand 4.5 gwater in Gabès [14, 21, 22]. The research works Algeria show thegypseous rising occupy a[3, large areas oftable the northern Sahara the soil presents an accumulation ofthe limestone and gypseous tablecloths, [3, 23,of24, 25]. The basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem water table rising. This latter is due Saoura; 1.2 to 2.5 g per liter in water of the Albian aquifer, in the Sahara; in the South Tunisian it reaches 4.7 g in Ksar Khilane, 6.2 g to Zarzis and 3 g to 4.5 g in Gabès [14, 21, 22]. to the multiplication of in water points, to that the poor drainage ofoccupy agricultural water, drainage remains little effective The basin of accumulation Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem of24, water rising. This latter is due research works Algeria show thegypseous water rising a[3,large areas oftable the northern Sahara and the soil presents an of limestone and tablecloths, 23, 25]. The basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem ofareas water table rising. This latter is due to multiplication of water points, to the poor drainage of agricultural water, drainage remains little effective g inthe Ksar Khilane, 6.2 goutfall to Zarzis and 3water gthat toand 4.5 gwater inrising Gabès [14, 21, 22]. The research works in Algeria show the rising occupy a large of the northern Sahara and the due to the absence of [4]. The table has resulted the degradation of soils and plants of to the multiplication of water points, to the poor drainage of agricultural water, drainage remains little effective soil presents an accumulation of limestone gypseous tablecloths, [3, 23, 24, 25]. The basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last has years a problem of water table rising. This latter is due to the multiplication ofoutfall water points, towater the poor drainage ofoccupy agricultural water, drainage remains little effective due to the absence of [4]. The table rising resulted the degradation of soils and plants of The research works in Algeria show that the water rising a large areas of the northern Sahara and the soil presents an accumulation of limestone and gypseous tablecloths, [3, 23, 24, 25]. Saharan Ecosystems due to multiplication the absence of[17]. [4]. Thetowater table rising resulted the water, degradation ofrising. soils and plants of the The basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last has years a problem of water table This latter is due to the ofoutfall water points, the poor drainage of agricultural drainage remains little effective due to the absence of outfall [4]. The water table rising has resulted the degradation of soils and plants of the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. soil presents an accumulation of limestone and gypseous tablecloths, [3, 23, 24, 25]. basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem of water table rising. This latter is due The rising and the salinity of water table in Ouargla, as elsewhere in the majority of the eastern regions of the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. to the multiplication of water points, to the poor drainage of agricultural water, drainage remains little effective dueThe to the absence of outfall [4]. The water table rising has resulted the degradation of soils and plants of the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. rising and the salinity of water table in Ouargla, as elsewhere in the of the eastern regions of and the basin of Ouargla has experienced during these last years a problem ofmajority water table rising. This latter is due to the multiplication of water points, to the poor drainage of agricultural water, drainage remains little effective low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of a good number of previous works to explain the origin, causes The rising and the salinity of water table in Ouargla, as elsewhere in the majority of the eastern regions due to the absence of outfall [4]. The water table rising has resulted the degradation of soils and plants of the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. The rising and the salinity of water table in Ouargla, as elsewhere in the majority of the eastern regions of the low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of a good number of previous works to explain the origin, causes and to the multiplication of water points, to the poor drainage of agricultural water, drainage remains little effective dueThe to the absence of outfall [4].water The table water rising has the degradation of soils andregions plants of the the evolution of this dual phenomenon during the recent history and try to rectify low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of aintable good number ofresulted previous works to[5]. explain the origin, causes and Saharan Ecosystems [17]. rising and the salinity of Ouargla, as elsewhere in the majority of the eastern of the low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of a good number of previous works to explain the origin, causes and the evolution of this dual phenomenon during the recent history and to rectify [5]. dueThe to the absence of outfall [4]. The water rising has resulted degradation soils andwater plantsand of the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. previous works show that there is aaintable risk of soils salinization with thetoloaded irrigation the the evolution of dual phenomenon during the recent history and try try to rectify [5]. rising andthis the salinity of water table Ouargla, as elsewhere inthe the majority of of the eastern regions of and low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of good number of previous works explain the origin, causes the evolution of this dual phenomenon during the recent history and try to rectify [5]. Thetable previous works show that there is aainrisk of salinization the loaded irrigation water and the Saharan Ecosystems [17]. rising andthis the salinity of water table Ouargla, as elsewhere in with the majority of the eastern regions of and water rising [8]. The salinity of water insoils majority the of standard limit which iscauses estimated previous works show that there is ofnumber soils salinization with the irrigation water and the low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of exceeds a risk good of previous works toloaded explain the origin, theThe evolution of dual phenomenon during the recent history andthreshold try to rectify [5]. The previous works show that there is a risk of soils salinization with the loaded irrigation water and the water table rising [8]. The salinity of water exceeds in majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated The rising and the salinity of water table in Ouargla, as elsewhere in the majority of the eastern regions of the low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of a good number of previous works to explain the origin, causes and to: 3evolution dS /m [16] the soils are considered Saline as soon as the electrical conductivity exceeds 4 ds.m-1 in (25 C°). water table rising [8]. The salinity of water exceeds in majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated theThe of this dual phenomenon during the recent history and try to rectify [5]. previous works show that there is a risk of soils salinization with the loaded irrigation water and the water table rising [8]. The salinity of water exceeds in majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated to: 3 dS /m [16] the soils are considered Saline as soon as the electrical conductivity exceeds 4 ds.m-1 in (25 C°). low-Sahara basin, have been the subject of a good number of previous works to explain the origin, causes and theThe of the this dual phenomenon during the recent andthreshold try to rectify [5].exceeds salt accumulation measured inwater the is toelectrical cause a fall of the outputs in palm It must fold to: 3evolution dS /m [16] soils are considered Saline as sufficient soon ashistory the conductivity ds.m-1 (25 previous works show that of there issoil a risk ofinsoils salinization with loaded irrigation water andC°). the water table rising [8]. The salinity exceeds majority the of standard limit44grove. which isin estimated to: 3evolution dS /m [16] soils are considered Saline as sufficient soon ashistory the electrical conductivity ds.m-1 inmust (25 C°). salt accumulation measured in the soil is to cause aa fall of outputs in palm grove. It fold theThe ofofthe this dual phenomenon during the recent and try to rectify [5].exceeds previous works show that there is a risk of soils salinization with the loaded irrigation water and the down the level the water by a drainage and correct the dose for irrigation to leaching salts [18]. The salt accumulation measured in the soil is sufficient to cause fall of outputs in palm grove. It must fold water table rising [8]. The salinity of water exceeds in majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated to: The 3 dS /mlevel [16] the soils are considered Saline as sufficient soonthe asdose thetoelectrical conductivity exceeds 4grove. ds.m-1Itinmust (25 C°). salt accumulation measured inwater the soil is cause a fall oftothe outputs insalts palm fold down the of the water by aa drainage correct for irrigation leaching [18]. The previous works show that there isand a risk ofinthe soils salinization with loaded irrigation water andC°). the water table rising [8]. The salinity of exceeds majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated down the level of the water by drainage and correct dose for irrigation to leaching salts [18]. to: 3 dS /m [16] the soils are considered Saline as soon as the electrical conductivity exceeds 4 ds.m-1 in (25 Thethe saltlevel accumulation measured in theand soilcorrect is sufficient to cause a fall oftooutputs insalts palm[18]. grove. It must fold down of the water by a drainage the dose for irrigation leaching water table rising [8]. The salinity of water exceeds in majority the threshold of standard limit which is estimated to: The 3 dS /mlevel [16] are considered Saline as variation soonthe asdose the conductivity exceeds 4grove. ds.m-1 (25 C°). Our research work aims to spatial of the salinity and the water table risingItinmust Ouargla salt accumulation measured inthe the soilcorrect is sufficient toelectrical cause a fall oftooutputs insalts palm fold down the ofthe thesoils water by astudy drainage and for irrigation leaching [18]. research work aims to study spatial of the salinity and the table rising Ouargla to: Our 3 dS /mlevel [16] are considered Saline as variation soonthe asdose the conductivity exceeds 4grove. ds.m-1 (25 C°). The salt accumulation measured inthe the soilcorrect is sufficient toelectrical cause a fall oftooutputs insalts palm fold Basin. Our research work aims to the spatial variation of the salinity and the water water table risingItin inmust Ouargla down the ofthe thesoils water by astudy drainage and for irrigation leaching [18]. Our research work aims to astudy spatial of salinity the water table risingItinmust Ouargla Basin. Thethe salt accumulation measured inthe theand soilcorrect is variation sufficient to the cause a fall and oftooutputs insalts palm grove. fold down level of the water by drainage the dose for irrigation leaching [18]. Basin. Our research work aims to study the spatial variation of the salinity and the water table rising in Ouargla Basin. down the level of the water by a drainage and correct the dose for irrigation to leaching salts [18]. 2. Materials andwork methods Our research aims to study the spatial variation of the salinity and the water table rising in Ouargla Basin. 2. and methods Our research aims to study the spatial variation of the salinity and the water table rising in Ouargla 2. Materials Materials andwork methods Basin. 2. Materials andwork methods Our research aims to study the spatial variation of the salinity and the water table rising in Ouargla Basin. 2.1. Study Area 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study Area Basin. 2.1. Study Area 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study Area Our study area methods is located in the city of Ouargla, one of the main Oasis of Algerian Sahara. It is located in the 2. Materials and 2.1.Our Study Area study area is in city of Ouargla, one of Oasis Sahara. It in 2. Materials and methods it is limited: south-east of Algeria at a distance from the It occupies anAlgerian area of 163 238 km Our study area is located located in the the of city750 of km Ouargla, onecapital. of the the main main Oasis of of Algerian Sahara. It is is2, located located in the the 2.1. Study Area Our study area is located in the of city750 of km Ouargla, onecapital. of the main Oasis of Algerian Sahara. It is22, located in the it is limited: south-east of Algeria at a distance from the It occupies an area of 163 238 km , it is limited: south-east of Algeria at a distance of 750 km from the capital. It occupies an area of 163 238 km 2.1. Study Area Our study area is located in the of city750 of km Ouargla, onecapital. of the main Oasis of Sahara. It is2, located in the it is limited: south-east ofthe Algeria at a distance It occupies anAlgerian area of 163 238 km • study InArea north-east byinthethewilaya ofOuargla, 'Elfrom Ouedthe 2.1. Study 2 located in the Our area is located city of one of the main Oasis of Algerian Sahara. It is , it is limited: south-east of Algeria at a distance of 750 km from the capital. It occupies an area of 163 238 km •• In north-east by wilaya of 'El Oued north-west byinthe the wilaya of Djelfa Inofthe the north-east by the 'El Ouedthe Our study area is located thewilaya city750 ofof Ouargla, one of the main Oasis of Sahara. It is2, located in the it is limited: south-east Algeria at a distance of km from It occupies anAlgerian area of 163 238 km • study In the north-east by the wilaya of 'El Ouedonecapital. north-west by the wilaya of Djelfa 2 located in the Our area is located in the city of Ouargla, of the main Oasis of Algerian Sahara. It is •• In the south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi north-west by the wilaya of Djelfa , it is limited: south-east of Algeria at a distance of 750 km from the capital. It occupies an area of 163 238 km north-east by of 'El Oued • In Inofthe the north-west bythe thewilaya wilaya of Djelfa south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi 2 south-east Algeria at a by distance of 750 km from •• And innorth-east the west the wilaya of Ghardaïa In south-east of' Illizi by the wilaya of 'El Ouedthe capital. It occupies an area of 163 238 km , it is limited: In the the north-west by the wilaya of Djelfa •• And In the south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi in the west by the wilaya of Ghardaïa In the north-east by the wilaya of 'El Oued Its geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' and 5°25' Is and latitudes 31°55' and 32°00' Northern [9]. the west by of • And In the theinnorth-west bythe thewilaya wilaya ofGhardaïa Djelfa In south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi •••• And innorth-east the west by the wilaya of Ghardaïa Its geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' 5°25' Is and [9]. In the the by the wilaya of 'El Oued In the north-west by the wilaya of Djelfa of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) includes 31°55' the agglomerations of Ouargla, Its The geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' and and 5°25' which Is and and latitudes latitudes 31°55' and 32°00' 32°00' Northern Northern [9]. •• City In south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi And of in the west by the wilaya ofa Ghardaïa Its The geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' and 5°25' which Is and latitudes 31°55' and 32°00' Northern [9]. City Ouargla is located in depression (Basin) includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, • In the north-west by the wilaya of Djelfa • In the south-east by the wilaya of' Illizi N'Goussa, Rouissat, Ain El Beida and Sidi Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between the Coordinates The City of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, • And in the west by the wilaya of Ghardaïa Its geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' and 5°25' Is and latitudes 31°55' and 32°00' Northern [9]. The City of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, N'Goussa, Ain El and Khouiled. This depression or extends between Coordinates InRouissat, theinsouth-east byBeida the wilaya Illizi •• Clarke1880): And the west the wilaya of Ghardaïa (UTM, X =by 710 000; Ylongitudes =Sidi 3of' 530 000 andand X =5°25' 730 000; = 3bowl 600 31°55' 000. It and presents a the total area of the N'Goussa, Rouissat, Ain El Beida Sidi Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between the Coordinates Its The geographical coordinates are: theand 5°15' Is andYlatitudes 32°00' Northern [9]. City of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, N'Goussa, Rouissat, Ain El Beida and Sidi Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between the Coordinates (UTM, X = 710 000; Y = 33length 530 000 and X = 730 000; Y = 33south-west 600 000. It presents aa total area of • ofClarke1880): And in the west by the wilaya of Ghardaïa Its geographical coordinates are: the longitudes 5°15' and 5°25' Is and latitudes 31°55' and 32°00' Northern [9]. Order 95 000 ha which spread over a of' approximately 55 km oriented / north-east [09]. It (UTM, Clarke1880): X = 710 000; Y = 530 000 and X = 730 000; Y = 600 000. It presents total area of the the The City of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, N'Goussa, Rouissat, Ain Beida and Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between Coordinates (UTM, Clarke1880): X = El 710 000; Ylongitudes =aSidi 3alength 530 000 and X =5°25' 730 000; Ykm = 3south-west 600 31°55' 000. Itoriented presents a the total area of the Order of 95 000 ha which spread over of' approximately 55 / north-east [09]. It Its geographical coordinates are: the 5°15' and Is and latitudes and 32°00' Northern [9]. The City of Ouargla is located in depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, has a favorable topography upon the water stagnation [20]. Order of 95 000 ha which spread over a length of' approximately 55 km south-west oriented / north-east [09]. It N'Goussa, Rouissat, Ain El Beida and Sidi Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between the Coordinates (UTM, X = 710 000; Ywater =a3length 530 000 X = 730 000; = 3south-west 600 000. Itoriented presents/ north-east a total area[09]. of the Order ofClarke1880): 95Rouissat, 000 ha which spread over of'and approximately 55Ykm It has a favorable topography upon the stagnation [20]. The City of Ouargla is located in a depression (Basin) which includes the agglomerations of Ouargla, N'Goussa, Ain El Beida and Sidi Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between the Coordinates has a favorable topography upon the water stagnation [20]. (UTM, Clarke1880): X = 710 000; Y = 3 530 000 and X = 730 000; Y = 3 600 000. It presents a total area of the Order of 95 000topography ha which spread over a length of' approximately 55 km south-west oriented / north-east [09]. It has a favorable upon the water stagnation [20]. N'Goussa, Ain El Beida and Khouiled. This depression or bowl extends between (UTM, Clarke1880): X =is 710 000; Ywater =aSidi 3length 530 000 X = 730 000; = 3south-west 600 000. Itoriented presents a the totalCoordinates area[09]. of the The oftopography Ouargla limited by: Order ofBasin 95Rouissat, 000 ha which spread over of'and approximately 55Ykm / north-east It has a favorable upon the stagnation [20]. The Basin of Ouargla is limited by: (UTM, Clarke1880): X = 710 000; Y = 3 530 000 and X = 730 000; Y = 3 600 000. It presents a total area of the Order of 95 000 ha which spread over a length of' approximately 55 km south-west oriented / north-east [09]. It Basin oftopography Ouargla is limited by: hasThe a favorable upon the water stagnation [20]. The Basin oftopography Ouargla is spread limited by: Order of 95 000 ha which over a length of' approximately 55 km south-west oriented / north-east [09]. It has a favorable upon the water stagnation [20]. • Basin Sebkhet Safioune in the North; The of Ouargla is in limited by: Sebkhet Safioune the North; hasThe a••favorable topography upon the water stagnation [20]. Ergs of Touil and Arifdji the Sebkhet Safioune theinNorth; Basin Ouargla is in limited by:East; • Ergs Sebkhet Safioune in theinNorth; Touil and Arifdji the East; The of Ouargla is limited by: •• Basin The dunes of Sedrata in the South; Ergs Touil and Arifdji in the East; Sebkhet Safioune in the North; • Basin Ergs Touil andSedrata Arifdji inthe the East; The dunes of in South; The of Ouargla is limited by: eastern slope of backbone of the M'Zab in the West. •• The dunes of Sedrata in the South; Sebkhet Safioune in the North; Ergsdunes Touil of and Arifdji theSouth; East; of •• The Sedrata ininthe eastern slope of the backbone Sebkhet Safioune in the North; The eastern slope of backbone of the the M'Zab M'Zab in in the the West. West. •• The Ergsdunes Touil and Arifdji in the East; ofslope Sedrata in the South; of ••• The eastern of the backbone the M'Zab in the West. Sebkhet Safioune in the North; Ergs Touil and Arifdji in the East; 2.2. Climate data •• The dunes of Sedrata in the South; Thedata eastern slope of the backbone of the M'Zab in the West. 2.2. Ergsdata Touil of and Arifdji theSouth; East; of the M'Zab in the West. ••• The dunes Sedrata ininthe 2.2. Climate Climate The eastern slope of the backbone 2.2.Ouargla Climate data •• The dunes of Sedrata in the South; is located in a Saharan zone, itsofdesert climate by an aridity which is expressed by the Thedata eastern slope of the backbone the M'Zab in characterized the West. 2.2.Ouargla Climate is located in aa Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by which is by • The eastern slope of the backbone of the M'Zab in the West. irregularity and the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime Ouargla is located in Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an an aridity aridity which is expressed expressed by the the 2.2. Climateand Ouargla isdata located in a Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an aridity which is expressed by the irregularity the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime irregularity and the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime 2.2. Climate data Ouargla and is located in a Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an aridity which is expressed by the irregularity the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime 2.2. Climateand Ouargla isdata located in a Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an aridity which is expressed by the irregularity the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime Ouargla and is located in a Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an aridity which is expressed by the irregularity the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime Ouargla and is located in a Saharan zone, its desert climate characterized by an aridity which is expressed by the irregularity the scarcity of precipitation, permanent drought, thermal amplitudes very important and a regime

3

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of winds which is reflected by current hot and dry. We have exploited the climate data from the meteorological station of Ouargla, the period between 2004 and 2014 to characterize the climate of the region (table 01). Table 1.which Climateis data of Ouargla 2014 [11]. of winds reflected bybetween current2004 hotand and dry. We have exploited the climate data from the meteorological station of Ouargla, the period between 2004 and 2014 to characterize the climate of the region (table 01). T max 2004 and T med Tablemonths 1. Climate dataTofmin Ouargla between 2014 [11].H (%) (°C) (°C) (°C) January 61.07 months T5,11 min T18.77 max T11.94 med H (%) February 6.83 21.08 13.96 51.21 (°C) (°C) (°C) March 10.99 25.81 18.40 45.67 January 5,11 18.77 11.94 61.07 April 16.26 30.38 22.82 39.34 February 6.83 21.08 13.96 51.21 May 19.75 34.89 27.32 33.90 March 10.99 25.81 18.40 45.67 June 24.81 40.28 32.54 29.50 April 16.26 30.38 22.82 39.34 July 28.21 43.71 35.96 25.79 May 19.75 34.89 27.32 33.90 August 27.54 42.84 35.19 28.84 June 24.81 40.28 32.54 29.50 September 23.51 37.75 30.63 37.90 July 28.21 43.71 35.96 25.79 October 17.61 32.18 24.89 44.42 August 27.54 42.84 35.19 28.84 November 10.46 24.16 17.31 54.85 September 23.51 37.75 30.63 37.90 December 6.02 19.23 12.62 60.54 October 17.61 32.18 24.89 44.42 Average 16.34 30.92 23.63 42.75 November 10.46 24.16 17.31 54.85 December 6.02 19.23 12.62 60.54 Average 16.34 30.92 23.63 42.75

V (km/h) V55.60 (km/h) 60.73 60.95 55.60 72.29 60.73 66.13 60.95 57.45 72.29 64.53 66.13 56.11 57.45 55.78 64.53 48.73 56.11 47.64 55.78 45.02 48.73 57.58 47.64 45.02 57.58

Insolation (h) 244.77 Insolation 241.84 (h) 259.09 244.77 280.90 241.84 301.03 259.09 253.20 280.90 327.18 301.03 330.68 253.20 269.05 327.18 265.28 330.68 249.68 269.05 223.28 265.28 270.50 249.68 Cumulative 223.28 270.50 Cumulative

P (mm)

E (mm)

P 9.10 (mm) 0.64 4.30 9.10 2.11 0.64 1.47 4.30 0.74 2.11 0.32 1.47 1.70 0.74 3.56 0.32 5.72 1.70 6.56 3.56 4.18 5.72 3.37 6.56 43.76 4.18 3.37 43.76

E90.70 (mm) 129.15 204.51 90.70 254.53 129.15 327.61 204.51 399.75 254.53 464.44 327.61 419.87 399.75 299.57 464.44 230.60 419.87 124.89 299.57 88.80 230.60 252.87 124.89 3287.29 88.80 252.87 3287.29

40

80

35 40 30 35 25 30 20 25 15 20 10 15 5 10 0 5

70 80 60 70 50 60 40 50 30 40 20 30 10 20 0 10

0

Dry Period Dry Period

0

Precipitation Precipitation (mm) (mm)

The ombrothermic diagram of GAUSSEN (1953) was used (Fig. 1) to characterize the climate of Ouargla. The principle of this diagram of Gaussen is to place in X axis the months, In Y axis the temperatures (left) and The ombrothermic diagram of PGAUSSEN precipitation (right) with the scale (mm) = 2T(1953) (°C). was used (Fig. 1) to characterize the climate of Ouargla. The principle of this diagram of Gaussen is to place in X axis the months, In Y axis the temperatures (left) and precipitation (right) with the scale P (mm) = 2T (°C).

Temperature Temperature (C°) (C°)



I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000

Temperature (C°) Precipitation (mm) Temperature (C°) Precipitation (mm)

Fig. 1. Ombrothermic diagram of GAUSSEN (Ouargla 2004-2014).

The ombrothermic diagram GAUSSENdiagram showsofthat the length of2004-2014). the dry period at Ouargla is spread Fig.of 1. Ombrothermic GAUSSEN (Ouargla throughout the year. The Basin of Ouargla is characterized by a hydrological regime where the evaporation is ombrothermic diagram95of% GAUSSEN that (88 the million length of the dryThe period at rising Ouargla is spread of inflows toshows the Basin m3/year). water in the linked (84The million m3/year) exceeds throughout the year. The Basin of Ouargla is characterized by a hydrological regime where the evaporation is mainly to the endoreism of the bowl has been accentuated in recent years as a result of the increase in the water 3 3 /year) exceeds 95 % of inflows to the Basin (88 million m /year). The water rising in the linked (84 million m needs of the different sectors [12]. mainly to the endoreism of the bowl has been accentuated in recent years as a result of the increase in the water needs of the differentApproach sectors [12]. 2.3. Methodological methodological approach is to measure the depth levels of the water table and the salinity of these waters 2.3.Our Methodological Approach from the piezometers of ANRH (National Resources Hydraulic Agency), about 32 functional piezometers, (Fig. Our methodological is of to measure levelsalso of the water tablespatial and the salinity ofofthese 2) they are implanted atapproach the Basin Ouargla,the ourdepth objective is to see the repartition waterwaters table from the of ANRH (National Resources Hydraulic Agency), about 32characters functional(Fig. piezometers, (Fig. rising andpiezometers its salinity which affects to the soil and causes a big degradation to their 3). 2) they are implanted at the Basin of Ouargla, our objective also is to see the spatial repartition of water table rising and its salinity which affects to the soil and causes a big degradation to their characters (Fig. 3).

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I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 571–578

Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified). Fig. 2. Satellite view of Study site (Photo Google Earth modified).

Fig. 3. (a) Water table rising; (b) Salinity of soil in Ouargla Basin (Photos from authors 08/03/2015). Fig. 3. (a) Water table rising; (b) Salinity of soil in Ouargla Basin (Photos from authors 08/03/2015). 3. (a) Water tabletemperature rising; (b) Salinity soil in Ouargla Basin (Photoswere from authors 08/03/2015). The physical Fig. parameters (pH, andofelectrical conductivity) determined in situ, Fig. 3. (a) depth Water table rising; (b) Salinity ofelectrical soil in Ouargla Basinwith (Photos from authors 08/03/2015). The physical parameters (pH, temperature and conductivity) determined in situ, portable parameter. The of the water table has been measured anwere electric sound probe. Fig. 3. (a) Water tabletemperature rising; (b) Salinity ofelectrical soil in Ouargla Basin (Photoswere from authors 08/03/2015). The physical parameters (pH, and conductivity) determined in situ, portable parameter. The depth of the water table has been measured with an electric sound probe. Fig. 3. (a) Water tabletemperature rising; (b) Salinity ofelectrical soil in Ouargla Basin (Photoswere from authors 08/03/2015). The physical parameters (pH, and conductivity) determined in situ, portable parameter. The depth of the water table has been measured with an electric sound probe. 2.3.1. Determination Fig. 3.of (a)pH Water tabletemperature rising; (b) Salinity ofelectrical soil in Ouargla Basin (Photoswere from authors 08/03/2015). The physical parameters (pH, and conductivity) determined in situ, portable parameter. The depth of the water table has been measured with an electric sound probe. Fig. 3. (a) Water table rising; (b) Salinity of soil in Ouargla Basin (Photos from authors 08/03/2015). 2.3.1. of pH (pH, temperature and electrical conductivity) were determined in situ, TheDetermination physical parameters

with a multiwith a multiwith a multiwith a multiwith a multiwith a multiportable parameter. The depth of the water table has been measured with an electric sound probe. TheDetermination pH is measured directly using electrode combined pH.anIt consists in soaking thewith electrode in 2.3.1. of pH The physical parameters (pH, temperature and conductivity) were determined in situ, a multiportable parameter. The depth of by the water an table haselectrical beenofmeasured with electric sound probe. 2.3.1. Determination of pH pH is measured directly by using an electrode of combined pH. It consists in soaking the electrode in The physical parameters (pH, temperature and electrical conductivity) were determined in situ, with a multidigging it sample, to let stabilize one moment, then to note the pH [26]. portable parameter. The depth of the water table has been measured with an electric sound probe. 2.3.1. Determination ofour pH The pH is measured directly by using an electrode ofmeasured combined pH.anIt electric consistssound in soaking the electrode in digging it sample, to let stabilize one moment, then to note the pH [26]. portable parameter. The depth of the water table has been with probe. The pH meter used in study is: WTW pH 315i. 2.3.1. Determination of pH The pH is measured directly byWTW using an 315i. electrode of the combined pH. It consists in soaking the electrode in digging it sample, stabilize one moment, then to note pH [26]. The pH meter usedtoinlet study is: pH 2.3.1. Determination ofour pH The pH is measured directly by using an electrode of combined pH. It consists in soaking the electrode in digging it sample, to let stabilize one moment, then to note the pH [26]. TheThe pH meter used inofofour study is:byWTW pH 315i. 2.3.1. Determination pH 2.3.2. Measurement conductivity pH is measured directly using an 315i. electrode of the combined pH. It consists in soaking the electrode in digging it sample, toinlet stabilize one moment, then to note pH [26]. The pH meter used our study is: WTW pH 2.3.2. Measurement ofletconductivity The pH is measured directly by using an electrode of combined pH. It consists in soaking the electrode in digging it sample, to stabilize one moment, then to note the pH [26]. The pH meter used inofour study is:byWTW pH 315i. The pH is measured directly using an electrode of the combined pH. It consists in soaking the after electrode in 2.3.2. Measurement conductivity For the determination of conductivity, it’s315i. usedtoa note multi-element conductivity meter. It is given rinsing digging it sample, toinlet stabilize one moment, then pH [26]. The pH meter used our study is: WTW pH 2.3.2. Measurement oflet conductivity digging it sample, to stabilize one moment, then to note the pH [26]. For the determination of conductivity, it’s used a multi-element conductivity meter. It is given after rinsing the electrode several times; initially with distilled water then while plunging it in a container containing of water The pH meter used inofour study is: WTW pH 315i. 2.3.2. Measurement conductivity The pH meter used inoftimes; our study is: WTW pH 315i. For the determination ofinitially conductivity, it’s used a multi-element conductivity It iscontaining givenThe afterresult theexamine; electrode withbydistilled water thenthe while plunging it in ameter. container ofrinsing water to toseveral make the measurement taking care that electrode is completely immersed. of 2.3.2. Measurement conductivity For the determination ofinitially conductivity, it’s used aofmulti-element conductivity meter. It rate iscontaining given after rinsing the electrode several times; with distilled water then while plunging it in a container of water to examine; to make the measurement by taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. The result of conductivity is given directly in μS/cm. The result the salinity and the dissolved salt (TDS) are given 2.3.2. Measurement of conductivity For the determination ofinitially conductivity, it’s used a multi-element conductivity It iscontaining givenThe afterresult theexamine; electrode several times; withbydistilled water thensalinity while plunging it in ameter. container ofrinsing water 2.3.2. Measurement of conductivity to to make the measurement taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. of conductivity is given directly in μS/cm. The result of the and the dissolved salt rate (TDS) are given respectively in ‰ and mg/l [26]. For the determination ofinitially conductivity, it’s used a multi-element conductivity It iscontaining givenThe afterresult theexamine; electrode several times; withbydistilled water thensalinity while plunging it in ameter. container ofrinsing water to to make the measurement taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. of conductivity is given directly in μS/cm. The result of the and the dissolved salt rate (TDS) are given respectively in ‰ and mg/l [26]. The conductivity meter type used in our study is: HACH CO150. For the determination ofinitially conductivity, it’s used a multi-element conductivity It iscontaining givenThe afterresult theexamine; electrode several times; withbydistilled water thensalinity while plunging it in ameter. container ofrinsing water to to make the measurement taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. of conductivity is given directly inused μS/cm. The result the and the dissolved salt (TDS) are given For the determination of conductivity, it’s used aofmulti-element conductivity meter. It rate iscontaining given after rinsing respectively in ‰ and mg/l [26]. The conductivity meter type in our study is: HACH CO150. the electrode several times; initially with distilled water then while plunging it in a container of water to examine; to make the measurement by taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. The result of conductivity is given directly in μS/cm. The result of the salinity and the dissolved salt rate (TDS) are given respectively in ‰ and mg/l [26]. theexamine; electrode several times; initially with water thensalinity while plunging it in a container containing of water The conductivity meter type used in our study is: HACH CO150. to to make the measurement bydistilled taking care the electrode is completely immersed. Theare result of conductivity is given directly inused μS/cm. The result of that the and the dissolved salt rate (TDS) given respectively in ‰ and mg/l [26]. The conductivity meter type in our study is: HACH CO150. to examine; to make the measurement by taking care that the electrode is completely immersed. The result of conductivity inis ‰ given in μS/cm. The result of the salinity and the dissolved salt rate (TDS) are given respectively and directly mg/l [26].

I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000



5 5

2.3.3. Water Table Depth Determination 2.3.3. Water Table Depth Determination I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 5 2.3.3. Water Table Depth Determination I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 5 We used an electric probe to determine the piezometric level of the water table. 2.3.3. Water Table Depth I. Recioui et al. / Energy 119 (2017) 571–578 575 We used an electric probeDetermination to determine the piezometric level Procedia of the water table. We used an electric probe to determine the piezometric level of the water table. 2.3.3. Water Table Depth We used an electric probeDetermination to determine the piezometric level of the water table. 2.3.3. Water Table Depth Determination 3. Results and discussion 3. Results and discussion We used anand electric probe to determine the piezometric level of the water table. 3. discussion WeResults used an electric probe to determine the piezometric level of the of water The following table represents the obtained results (depth level the table. water table, the electrical conductivity, 3. Results and discussion The following table represents the obtained results (depth level of the water table, the electrical conductivity, theThe hydrogen potential and the temperature knowing that the measurement of the samples are taken during the following table represents the obtained results (depth of the water table, the electrical conductivity, the hydrogen potential and the temperature knowing that thelevel measurement of the samples are taken during the 3. Results and discussion period of February and March 2015. following table the obtained results (depth of the water table, the electrical conductivity, theThe hydrogen and the2015. temperature knowing that thelevel measurement of the samples are taken during the period of February andrepresents March 3. Results andpotential discussion the hydrogen potential the2015. temperature knowing that the measurement of the samples are taken during the period of February and and March The2.of following table represents the obtained results (depth level of the water table, the electrical conductivity, Table. DataFebruary of studied parameters. period and March 2015. Table. 2. following Data of studied parameters. The table represents the obtained results (depth of the water table, the electrical conductivity, the hydrogen potential and the temperature knowing that thelevel measurement of the samples are taken during the Table. 2. Data of studied parameters. the hydrogen potential and the temperature knowing that the measurement of the samples are taken during the Piezometers X Y Depth (m) pH T°(in situ) EC in situ CE ms/cm Salinity period of February and March 2015. Table. 2. Data of studied Piezometers X parameters.Y Depth (m) pH T°(in situ) EC in situ CE in ms/cm Salinity ( ms/cm) 25 C° ( g/l) period of February and March 2015. ( ms/cm) in 25 C° ( g/l) Piezometers X Y Depth (m) pH T°(in situ) EC in situ CE ms/cm Salinity P001 722321 3572465 1.64 6.6 P001 722321 3572465 1.64(m) 6.6 Piezometers X parameters. Y Depth pH Table. 2. Data of studied P002 721962 3570826 2.19 6.8 722321 3572465 1.64 6.6 Table.P001 2. Data of studied parameters. P002 721962 3570826 2.19 6.8 P001 722321 3572465 1.64 6.6 Piezometers X Y Depth pH P006 719365 3564579 2,15 7,68 P002 721962 3570826 2.19(m) 6.8 P006 719365 3564579 2,15(m) 7,68 Piezometers X Y Depth pH P002 721962 3570826 2.19 6.8 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P006 719365 3564579 2,15 7,68 P001 722321 3572465 1.64 6.6 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P001 722321 3572465 1.64 6.6 P006 719365 3564579 2,15 7,68 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P002 721962 3570826 2.19 6.8 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P002 721962 3570826 2.19 6.8 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P006 719365 3564579 2,15 7,68 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P006 719365 3564579 2,15 7,68 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P012 718556 3554396 1,7 7,58 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P015 720535 3552018 1,95 8,06 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P019 717663 3563267 1,86 7,46 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P041 716487 3559870 1,12 7,62 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P043 716904 3556108 1,63 7,52 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P054 716536 3552141 3,67 7,88 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P056 716966 3550240 4,57 7,55 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 P057 717297 3549250 4,39 7,58 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 P064 720162 3542942 1,58 7,2 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P096 724673 3540572 1,32 7,54 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P113 714520 3535893 4,34 7,24 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 P162 725073 3546440 1,59 7.2 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 P163 725372 3545418 1,82 6,52 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 PZ12 722931 3547234 1,37 7,08 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 P419 bis 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 P419 bis 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 P165 722932 3547773 1,34 7,62 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 P422bis 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 P419 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 P422 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 P408(puits) 719930 3544999 4,49 7,52 P419 bis 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 P422 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 P413(puits) 722632 3530332 1,27 7,56 P422 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 P419 bis 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 P419 bis 725549 3539801 0,93 7,51 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 P422 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 P422 718819 3575646 6,55 7,87 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 P423 723122 3541188 2,31 7.23 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL10 719690 3537362 2,52 6,97 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL13 720144 3536857 1,36 7,25 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL15 718688 3538269 5,56 7,12 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL17 718455 3537215 1,75 7 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL31 720058 3538295 2,19 7,39 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL31 720058 3538295 2,19 7,39 PL21 721212 3536381 2,09 7,31 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL32 720114 3538785 2,59 6,73 PL31 720058 3538295 2,19 7,39 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL32 720114 3538785 2,59 6,73 PL23 720894 3538726 2,51 5,95 PL31 720058 3538295 2,19 7,39 PL32 720114 3538785 2,59 6,73 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL27 718351 3535781 5,43 6,75 PL32 720114 3538785 2,59 6,73 ToPL31 determine720058 the mineralization corresponds to the 3538295 2,19 7,39 ToPL31 determine720058 the mineralization corresponds to the 3538295 2,19 7,39 have use the following mathematical relation [19] : ToPL32 determine the mineralization corresponds 720114 3538785 2,59 [19]to 6,73 have use the following mathematical relation : the 720114 3538785 2,59 [19]to 6,73 ToPL32 determine the mineralization corresponds have use the following mathematical relation : the

19.5 137.1 ( ms/cm) 19.5 137.1 T°(in situ) EC in situ 19.2 88.3 19.5 137.1 ( ms/cm) 19.2 88.3 19.5 T°(in situ) EC137.1 in situ 19,4 20,1 19.2 88.3 19,4 20,1 T°(in situ) EC in situ ( ms/cm) 19.2 88.3 18,8 117,2 19,4 20,1 ( ms/cm) 19.5 137.1 18,8 117,2 19.5 137.1 19,4 20,1 18,27 18,27 18,8 117,2 19.2 88.3 18,27 18,27 19.2 88.3 18,8 117,2 19 67,4 18,27 18,27 19,4 20,1 19 67,4 19,4 20,1 18,27 18,27 18,3 38,8 19 67,4 18,8 117,2 18,3 38,8 18,8 117,2 19 67,4 19,2 134,2 18,3 38,8 18,27 18,27 19,2 134,2 18,27 18,27 18,3 38,8 22,2 4,88 19,2 134,2 19 67,4 22,2 4,88 19 67,4 19,2 134,2 22,8 6,49 22,2 4,88 18,3 38,8 22,8 6,49 18,3 38,8 22,2 4,88 24,1 6,7 22,8 6,49 19,2 134,2 24,1 6,7 19,2 134,2 22,8 6,49 17,02 169 24,1 6,7 22,2 4,88 17,02 169 22,2 4,88 24,1 6,7 15,8 108,6 17,02 169 22,8 6,49 15,8 108,6 22,8 6,49 17,02 169 21,9 79,5 15,8 108,6 24,1 6,7 21,9 79,5 24,1 6,7 15,8 108,6 18,7 166,6 21,9 79,5 17,02 169 18,7 166,6 17,02 169 21,9 79,5 165,4 18,7 166,6 15,8 108,6 18,7 165,4 15,8 108,6 18,7 166,6 16,1 62,03 18,7 165,4 21,9 79,5 16,1 62,03 21,9 79,5 18,7 165,4 16,7 103,3 16,1 62,03 18,7 166,6 16,7 103,3 18,7 166,6 16,1 62,03 16,09 6,21 16,7 103,3 18,7 165,4 16,09 6,21 18,7 165,4 16,7 103,3 15,6 11,47 16,09 6,21 16,1 62,03 15,6 11,47 16,1 62,03 16,09 6,21 14,8 15,6 11,47 16,7 103,3 15,6 14,8 16,7 103,3 15,6 11,47 19,6 3,15 15,6 14,8 16,09 6,21 19,6 3,15 16,09 6,21 15,6 14,8 19,4 157.8 19,6 3,15 15,6 11,47 19,4 157.8 15,6 11,47 19,6 3,15 22 5,24 19,4 157.8 15,6 14,8 22 5,24 15,6 14,8 19,4 157.8 21,9 5,77 22 5,24 19,6 3,15 21,9 5,77 19,6 3,15 22 5,24 21,1 3,97 21,9 5,77 19,4 157.8 21,1 3,97 19,4 157.8 21,9 5,77 19,4 11,52 21,1 3,97 22 5,24 19,4 11,52 22 5,24 21,1 3,97 21,9 10,97 19,4 11,52 21,9 5,77 21,9 10,97 21,9 5,77 19,4 11,52 21,6 9,86 21,9 10,97 21,1 3,97 21,6 9,86 21,1 3,97 21,9 10,97 23,9 57,5 21,6 9,86 19,4 11,52 23,9 57,5 19,4 11,52 21,6 9,86 23 4,61 23,9 57,5 21,9 10,97 23 4,61 21,9 10,97 23,9 57,5 23,8 8,86 23 4,61 21,6 9,86 23,8 8,86 21,6 9,86 23 4,61 23,8 8,86 23,9 57,5 23,9 57,5 23,8 8,86 totality of the dissolved 23 4,61 totality of the dissolved 23 4,61 totality 23,8of the dissolved 8,86 23,8of the dissolved 8,86 totality

154,65 25 C° 154,65 CE in ms/cm 100,31 in154,65 25 C° 100,31 154,65 CE ms/cm 22,73 100,31 22,73 CE ms/cm in100,31 25 C° 22,73 in134,43 25 C° 154,65 134,43 154,65 22,73 21,19 134,43 100,31 21,19 100,31 134,43 76,90 21,19 22,73 76,90 22,73 21,19 45,01 76,90 134,43 45,01 134,43 76,90 152,45 45,01 21,19 152,45 21,19 45,01 5,18 152,45 76,90 5,18 76,90 152,45 6,80 5,18 45,01 6,80 45,01 5,18 6,83 6,80 152,45 6,83 152,45 6,80 202,12 6,83 5,18 202,12 5,18 6,83 133,69 202,12 6,80 133,69 6,80 202,12 84,99 133,69 6,83 84,99 6,83 133,69 191,42 84,99 202,12 191,42 202,12 84,99 190,04 191,42 133,69 190,04 133,69 191,42 75,80 190,04 84,99 75,80 84,99 190,04 124,48 75,80 191,42 124,48 191,42 75,80 7,59 124,48 190,04 7,59 190,04 124,48 14,54 7,59 75,80 14,54 75,80 7,59 18,77 14,54 124,48 18,77 124,48 14,54 3,55 18,77 7,59 3,55 7,59 18,77 178,47 3,55 14,54 178,47 14,54 3,55 5,59 178,47 18,77 5,59 18,77 178,47 6,17 5,59 3,55 6,17 3,55 5,59 4,32 6,17 178,47 4,32 178,47 6,17 13,03 4,32 5,59 13,03 5,59 4,32 11,73 13,03 6,17 11,73 6,17 13,03 10,61 11,73 4,32 10,61 4,32 11,73 58,88 10,61 13,03 58,88 13,03 10,61 4,81 58,88 11,73 4,81 11,73 58,88 9,09 4,81 10,61 9,09 10,61 4,81 9,09 58,88 58,88 9,09 salts contained 4,81 salts contained 4,81 salts contained 9,09 9,09 salts contained

in in in in

117,85 ( g/l) 117,85 Salinity 76,44 117,85 ( g/l) 76,44 117,85 Salinity 17,32 76,44 17,32 Salinity ( g/l) 76,44 102,44 17,32 ( g/l) 117,85 102,44 117,85 17,32 16,15 102,44 76,44 16,15 76,44 102,44 58,60 16,15 17,32 58,60 17,32 16,15 34,30 58,60 102,44 34,30 102,44 58,60 116,17 34,30 16,15 116,17 16,15 34,30 3,52 116,17 58,60 3,52 58,60 116,17 4,62 3,52 34,30 4,62 34,30 3,52 4,64 4,62 116,17 4,64 116,17 4,62 154,73 4,64 3,52 154,73 3,52 4,64 102,34 154,73 4,62 102,34 4,62 154,73 65,06 102,34 4,64 65,06 4,64 102,34 146,54 65,06 154,73 146,54 154,73 65,06 145,48 146,54 102,34 145,48 102,34 146,54 58,03 145,48 65,06 58,03 65,06 145,48 95,29 58,03 146,54 95,29 146,54 58,03 5,16 95,29 145,48 5,16 145,48 95,29 11,08 5,16 58,03 11,08 58,03 5,16 14,30 11,08 95,29 14,30 95,29 11,08 2,41 14,30 5,16 2,41 5,16 14,30 136,00 2,41 11,08 136,00 11,08 2,41 3,80 136,00 14,30 3,80 14,30 136,00 4,19 3,80 2,41 4,19 2,41 3,80 2,94 4,19 136,00 2,94 136,00 4,19 9,93 2,94 3,80 9,93 3,80 2,94 8,94 9,93 4,19 8,94 4,19 9,93 7,21 8,94 2,94 7,21 2,94 8,94 44,87 7,21 9,93 44,87 9,93 7,21 3,27 44,87 8,94 3,27 8,94 44,87 6,18 3,27 7,21 6,18 7,21 3,27 6,18 44,87 44,87 6,18 the water 3,27 the water 3,27 the water 6,18 6,18 the water

we we we we

have use the following mathematical relation [19] : To determine the mineralization corresponds to the totality of the dissolved salts contained in the water we

Mineralization (g/l) I.= Recioui, Conductivity fx (*) (μs/cm) in 20 C°; (1) 6 M. DaddifxBouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 Mineralization (g/l) if= (*) Conductivity (*) in 20 C°; (1) With: f = 0.850432 between 833 and(μs/cm) 10000 (µs/cm) With: f = 0.850432 if (*) between 833 and 10000 (µs/cm) than 10 000 (μs/cm). 6f = 0.758544 if (*) greater I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 f = 0.758544 if (*) 10 000 (μs/cm). 6With I. 25 Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 (*) x 1.116 forgreater C°.than (2) Mineralization (g/l) Conductivity (*) (μs/cm) in 20 C°; (1) 6With (*) x 1.116 Recioui, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 forI.=25 C°. M. DaddifxBouhoun, (2) 576 I. Recioui al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 571–578 With: f = 0.850432 if (*) between 833 and 10000et(µs/cm) 3.1. Precedent Piezometry of the water table Mineralization (g/l) = Conductivity fx (*) (μs/cm) in 20 C°; (1) f = 0.758544 (*) greater than 000 (μs/cm). 3.1. PrecedentifPiezometry of the10 water table Mineralization (g/l) if= (*) Conductivity fx (*) (μs/cm) in 20 C°; (1) With: f = 0.850432 between 833 and 10000 (µs/cm) With (*) x 1.116 for=collected 25 C°. from fx (2) Mineralization (g/l) Conductivity (*) (μs/cm) in 20 C°; (1) Piezometric data water table shows a variation in level from 2 m until the outcropping in the With: f = 0.850432 if (*) between 833 and 10000 (µs/cm) f =Piezometric 0.758544 ifdata (*) greater thanfrom 10 000 (μs/cm). collected water table shows a variation in level from 2 m until the outcropping in the With: fof= the if 25 (*)C°. between and 10000 (µs/cm) center basin of Ouargla where the water levels have risen about 50 cm between 1959 and 1996 [27,28]. (2) f = 0.758544 if (*) greater than 10833 000 (μs/cm). With (*) x0.850432 1.116 for 3.1. Precedent of the water table center of the basin of Ouargla where the water risen about 50BG cmand between 1959 (campaign and 1996 [27,28]. f =The 0.758544 ifPiezometry (*) greater than 10 000 (μs/cm). piezometric Cards established about thelevels basin,have by the ENAGEO, the ANRH 94 and the With (*) x 1.116 for 25 C°. (2) The piezometric Cards established about the basin, by the ENAGEO, BG and the ANRH (campaign 94byand the With (*) x 1.116 for 25 C°. (2) recent campaigns 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011) clearly show that there are two distinct zones separated a line 3.1. Precedent Piezometry of the water table Piezometric data collected from water table shows ashow variation in level 2 m until the separated outcropping the recent campaigns 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011) clearlyand thatElthere are from two distinct zones by in athe line of sharing the waters at the of the Hassi Miloud Bour Haîcha, which is reflected by two flows, a 3.1. Precedent Piezometry oflevel the water table center of the basin of Ouargla where theHassi waterMiloud levels have risen El about 50 cmwhich between 1959 and 1996 [27,28].the a of sharing the waters at the level of the and Bour Haîcha, is reflected by two flows, 3.1. Precedent Piezometry of the water table toward the north (toward Sebkhet Safione) and the other toward the West (Sebkhet Bamendil). The water is Piezometric data Cards collected from water table shows a variation in level 2themANRH until the outcropping in the The piezometric established about the basin, by thetoward ENAGEO, BGfrom and (campaign 94water and the toward the north (toward Safione) and the other the West (Sebkhet is Piezometric data collected from water table shows a variation infrom level m until the outcropping in the present everywhere in the Sebkhet scale of the region. Its thickness varies 1 from tobetween 8m2 and isBamendil). based on aThe level sealed center of the basin of Ouargla where the water levels have risen about 50 cm 1959 and 1996 [27,28]. recent campaigns 2003, 2004, 2009, andregion. 2011) clearly show that there are1 from two distinct zones separated bysealed a line present everywhere in the scale of the Its thickness varies from to 8m and is based on a level Piezometric data collected from water table shows a variation in level 2 m until the outcropping in the center thewhich basin occupies ofCards Ouargla water levels have risen about 50 cm between 1959arisen and 1996 waterproof, thewhere entirethe bottom of the valley of ENAGEO, Ouargla. Its capillary fringe often[27,28]. on the soil Theof piezometric about the basin, by the BG and the ANRH (campaign 94 andthe thea of sharing the waters at theestablished level of the Hassi Miloud and Bour El Haîcha, which isfringe reflected by1996 two flows, waterproof, which occupies the entire bottom of the valley of Ouargla. Its capillary arisen often onthe the soil center of the basin of Ouargla where the water levels have risen about 50 cm between 1959 and [27,28]. The piezometric Cards established about the basin, by the ENAGEO, BG and the ANRH (campaign 94 and the surface in form of Chotts. It is relatively deep in the points of high topography (Ergs), and less deep in areas recent campaigns 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011) clearly show that there are two distinct zones separated by a line toward the northof(toward Sebkhet Safione) and the points other toward the West (Sebkhet Bamendil). water is surface in form Chotts. It is 2009, relatively deep inbasin, the of high topography (Ergs), and less deepThe in94the areas The piezometric Cards established about the by the ENAGEO, BG and the ANRH (campaign and the recent campaigns 2003, 2004, and 2011) clearly show that there are two distinct zones separated by a line close to the irrigated palm groves. of sharing the watersinatthe thescale level of of the the region. Hassi Miloud and Bour El Haîcha, is reflected two flows,sealed the a present everywhere Its thickness varies fromare1 which to 8m and iszones basedby on a level close to the irrigated palm groves. recent campaigns 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011) clearly show that there two distinct separated by a line of sharing waters at theSebkhet level of Safione) the Hassiand Miloud and Bour El Haîcha, which is reflected by twoThe flows, the isa toward thethe north (toward thevalley other the Its West (Sebkhet Bamendil). waterproof, which occupies the entire bottom of the oftoward Ouargla. capillary fringe arisen often onwater thethe soila of sharing the waters at the level of the Hassi Miloud and Bour El Haîcha, which is reflected by two flows, toward the north (toward Sebkhet Safione) and the other toward the West (Sebkhet Bamendil). The water is 3.2. Current Piezometry of the water table present everywhere in the Itscale of the region. thickness varies from 1 to 8m and isand based a level sealed surface in form of(toward Chotts. is water relatively deepand inItsthe points of high topography (Ergs), less on deep in the areas 3.2. Current Piezometry of the table toward the north Sebkhet Safione) the other toward the West (Sebkhet Bamendil). The water is present everywhere in the scale of the region. Its thickness varies from 1 to 8m and is based on a level sealed waterproof, which occupies the entire bottom of the valley of Ouargla. Its capillary fringe arisen often on the soil close to everywhere the irrigated palm present in the groves. of thebottom region. thickness varies from 1capillary to sense 8m and isand based on a level sealed waterproof, which occupies the entire of the valley Ouargla. fringe arisen often the soil water rising,of how andtopography inIts what made this evolution, we have In order to better know the evolution of this surface in form of Chotts. Itscale is relatively deep inIts the points of high (Ergs), less deep inonthe areas water rising, how and in what sense made this evolution, we have In order to better know the evolution of this waterproof, which occupies the entire bottom of the valley of Ouargla. Its capillary fringe arisen often on the soil surface in form of Chotts. It is relatively deep in the points of high topography (Ergs), and less deep in the areas made a Companion of measurement on all functional piezometers of the Basin of Ouargla. We have used the close to the irrigated palm 3.2. Current Piezometry ofgroves. table made asoftware. Companion of measurement on all functional piezometers of the Basin of Ouargla. have usedareas the surface in of Chotts. Itthe is water relatively deep in 2010) the points of high piezometric topography (Ergs), and4). lessWe deep in the close to theform irrigated palm groves. Surfer Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 to establish cards (Fig. Surfer software. Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 2010) to establish piezometric cards (Fig. 4). close to the irrigated palm groves. 3.2.In Current Piezometry of the tableof this water rising, how and in what sense made this evolution, we have order to better know the water evolution 3.2. Current Piezometry of the water table made a Companion of measurement on all functional piezometers of the Basin of Ouargla. We have used the 3.2.In Current Piezometry of the table how and in what sense order to better know the water evolution of this 3575000 Surfer software. Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 water 2010)rising, to establish piezometric cardsmade (Fig.this 4). evolution, we have Safioune waterSabkhet rising, how andofin the what senseofmade this evolution, we have In aorder to better of know the evolution of this 3575000 made Companion measurement on all functional piezometers Basin Ouargla. We have used the Sabkhet Safioune water rising, how and in what sense made this evolution, we have In order to better know the evolution of this made a Companion of measurement on all functional piezometers of the Basin of Ouargla. We have used the Surfer software. Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 2010) to establish piezometric cards (Fig. 4). made asoftware. Companion of measurement on all functional piezometers of the Basin of Ouargla. We have used the Surfer Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 2010) to establish piezometric cards (Fig. 4). 3570000 Surfer software. Version: (9.11.947 – August 25 2010) to establish piezometric cards (Fig. 4). 3575000 3570000 P422 P422

P001

P001 P002 P002

P422

Sabkhet Safioune P001

P422 P006 P422 P006 P019

3575000 3565000 3575000 3570000 3565000 3575000

P422 P019

3570000 3560000 3570000

P002 Safioune Sabkhet EL Bour P001Safioune Sabkhet EL Bour P001

P002 Safioune Sabkhet P001 P002

P041 P041

3565000 3560000 3570000

P006

P019

P002

EL Bour

P043

3565000 3555000 3565000 3560000 3555000 3565000 3560000 3550000 3560000 3555000 3550000 3560000 3555000 3545000 3555000 3550000 3545000 3555000 3550000 3540000 3550000 3545000 3540000 3550000 3545000 3535000 3545000 3540000 3535000 3545000

P006 N'Goussa EL Bour P043 P012 P006 P019 N'Goussa P041 EL Bour P012 P019 P006 P054 P015 EL Bour P019 P054 P041 P015 Ain Moussa P043 P056 P041 Ain Moussa N'Goussa P057 P056 P012 P041 P054 P043 P043 P056 P054 P057 P054 P056 P054 P057 P056 P057 P056 P057 P113 P113

PZ12

P165 N'Goussa P015

P162

P408 N'Goussa

P162 P163

N'Goussa P015

P163

PZ12

P012 P012 P012

Ain Moussa P408

P064 P015 P165 Ain Moussa P423 P064 PZ12 P096 P015 P162 Ain Moussa P423

P096 P419 PL32 P408 P163 Ain Moussa P165 PL23 PL31 P419 PL32 PZ12 PL10 P165 P162 PL23 PL31 PL15 PL13 PZ12 PL17 P064 P408 PL10 P162 P165 P163 PL21 PL13 P423 PL17 PZ12 PL27 P408 P163 P096 P162 PL21 Ouargla PL15

PL27

P408 P064 PL32 Ouargla

P419 P163

P423 PL31 P064 PL23 P096 PL10 P423 PL13 P413 PL17 P064 P096 P419 PL32 PL21 P423 P413 PL23 PL31 P419 PL15 PL27 PL32 P096 720000 725000 Ouargla PL10 PL23 PL31 PL15 PL13 P419 PL17 PL32 720000 725000 PL10 PL21 (m) PL23 PL31PL13 PL17 PL15 PL27 PL10 PL21 Ouargla (m) PL13 PL17 PL27 P413 Ouargla PL21 PL27 PL15

3540000 P113 3540000 715000 3535000 3540000 715000 P113

3535000

P165

P057 P043

P113

Fig. 4. Piezometric level of the water table (February 2015). P113 Fig. 4. Piezometric level of the water table (February 2015). 720000 725000 3535000 715000 Ouargla 3535000

The areas in which the water table is the most profound are located to northwest of Ouargla basin, southwest (m) 725000 in which the water table El is the most720000 profound are located to northwest of slopes Ouargla southwest of' The Oumareas Raneb, in the region of715000 Bour Haïcha, in the hills of Onk Djemel and in the to basin, the northwest of 720000 725000 Fig. 4. Piezometric of the water (February of' Oum Raneb, in the region of715000 Bour El Haïcha,level in the hills oftable Onk Djemel2015). and in the slopes to the northwest of (m) P413 P413 P413

715000

720000

725000 (m)

4. Piezometric of the water (February 2015). The areas in which the water Fig. table is the mostlevel profound aretable located to northwest of Ouargla basin, southwest (m) Fig. 4. Piezometric level of the water table (February 2015). of' Oum Raneb, in the region of Bour El Haïcha, in the hills of Onk Djemel and in the slopes to the northwest of 4. Piezometric of the water (February 2015). The areas in which the water Fig. table is the mostlevel profound aretable located to northwest of Ouargla basin, southwest



N'Goussa. These areas where the water is deep don’t correspond to the depressions of the piezometric level, but N'Goussa. These areas where the water isnatural deep don’t correspond to/ Energy thein depressions of the000–000 piezometric but 7 at the highest topography points (in the conditions). The areas which the (2017) water table is less level, profound I. Recioui, M.the Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. Procedia00 N'Goussa. These areas where water isnatural deep don’t correspond to thein depressions of the piezometric but at the highest points (in the conditions). The water table rejection is less level, profound are located in topography the vicinity ofM.irrigated palm groves (Ouargla andareas orthe area of water (in the 7 I. Recioui, Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. /N'Goussa) Energy which Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 at the highest topography points (in the natural conditions). The areas in which the water table is less profound I. Recioui, Daddi D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. /N'Goussa) Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 are located in the Oum vicinity ofM.irrigated palmwhere groves (Ouargla orarearea of water rejection (in the 7 vicinity of Chott Raneb). TheBouhoun, areas the water isand less profound located in points of bottom are located in the Oum vicinity ofM.irrigated palmwhere groves (Ouargla and orarearea of water rejection (in the 7 I. Recioui, Daddi D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. /N'Goussa) Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 vicinity of Chott Raneb). TheBouhoun, areas the water is less profound located in points of bottom topography. They form an alignment since the perimeter of Ouargla up to Sebkhet Safioune. The point where the et al. /correspond Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 571–578 577 N'Goussa. These areas where the The waterareas isI. Recioui deep don’t to the depressions of the piezometric level, but vicinity of Chott Oum Raneb). where the water is less profound are located in points of bottom topography. They form an alignment since the perimeter of Ouargla up to Sebkhet Safioune. The point where the water is located closest to the surface of water table is located in Sebkhet Safioune. In the agglomeration of N'Goussa. These areas where the water is deep don’t correspond to the depressions of the piezometric level, but at the highest topography points (in the natural conditions). The areas in which the water table is less profound topography. Theyclosest form antoalignment since the perimeter oflocated Ouargla up to Sebkhet Safioune. The point where the water is located the surface of water tablecorrespond is innorth Sebkhet Safioune. Indepth the agglomeration of N'Goussa. These areas where water isnatural deep to the depressions of the piezometric level, Ouargla, the depth of the the water table isdon’t about 2 m. In theareas palm grove, the of water table is at the highest topography points (in thepalm conditions). The in which the water table is less profound are located inaverage theclosest vicinity of irrigated groves (Ouargla and N'Goussa) or area of water rejection (in but the water is located to the surface of water table is located in Sebkhet Safioune. In the agglomeration of N'Goussa. These areas where the water is deep don’t correspond to the depressions of the piezometric level, but Ouargla, the average depth of the water table is about 2 m. In the north palm grove, the depth of water table is at the highest topography points (in the natural conditions). The areas in which the water table is less profound less than 1 m, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of it, we found water to less than 0.5 m of are located inaverage the Oum vicinity of palm groves (Ouargla N'Goussa) or area of water rejection (in the vicinity of Chott Raneb). The areas where the isand less profound are located in points ofprofound bottom Ouargla, them, depth of irrigated the(in water table isconditions). about 2water m. In the north palm grove, the depth of water table is at the highest topography points the natural The areas init, which the water table is less less than 1 while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of we found water to less than 0.5 m of are located in the vicinity of irrigated palm groves (Ouargla and N'Goussa) or area of water rejection (in the the surface of the ground. At the level of the Chott and Sebkhet Bamendil, the water is between 0.5 and 1 m. vicinity of Chott Oum Raneb). The since areas where the water is lessupprofound areSafioune. located in points of bottom topography. They form an alignment the perimeter of Ouargla toit, Sebkhet The point where the less than 1 m, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of we found water to less than 0.5 m of are located in the vicinity of irrigated palm groves (Ouargla and N'Goussa) or area of water rejection (in the the surface of the ground. At the level of thethe Chott and the water is between 0.5 andof 1 m. vicinity Chott Oum an Raneb). The since areas where the Sebkhet isBamendil, less profound areSafioune. located in points bottom topography. They form alignment perimeter oflocated Ouargla to Sebkhet The point where the water is of located toAt the table iswater in up Sebkhet In the agglomeration of the surface of theclosest ground. thesurface level ofofthewater Chott and the Safioune. water is between 0.5 andof 1 m. vicinity of Chott Oum Raneb). The since areas where the Sebkhet water isBamendil, less profound areSafioune. located in points bottom topography. They form an alignment the perimeter of Ouargla up to Sebkhet The point where the 3.3. The salinity of the water table water is located closest to the surface oftable water table is located innorth Sebkhet Safioune. Indepth the agglomeration of Ouargla, the average depth of the water is about 2 m. In the palm grove, the of water table is topography. Theyof form antoalignment since the perimeter oflocated Ouargla up to Sebkhet Safioune. The point where the 3.3. The thedepth water table water is salinity located closest the surface oftable water table is innorth Sebkhet Safioune. Indepth the agglomeration of Ouargla, the average of the water is about 2 m. In the palm grove, the of water table is less than 1 m, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of it, we found water to less than 0.5 m of 3.3. The of the water table water is salinity located closest to the surface oftable water table is located innorth Sebkhet Safioune. Indepth the agglomeration of Ouargla, depth ofthe the water about 2 m. In the palm grove, the of water table is In order toaverage know the spacial distribution ofisthis salinity, are measured the electric conductivity the less than 1them, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in thewe outskirts of it, wewater found water to less than1of 0.5 m 32 of the surface of the ground. At level of the Chott and Sebkhet Bamendil, the is between 0.5 and m. Ouargla, the average depth of the water table isthis about 2 m. In the north palm grove, the depth of water table is In order to know the spacial distribution of salinity, we are measured the electric conductivity of the 32 less than 1 m, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of it, we found water to less than 0.5 m of samples in situ with a conductivity meter HACH CO150. theIn surface of the ground. At the distribution level of the Chott and Sebkhet Bamendil, the water is between 0.5 and 1ofm. order to know the spacial of this salinity, we are measured the electric conductivity the 32 less than 1 m, while in the abandoned palm groves, or in the outskirts of it, we found water to less than 0.5 m of samples in with a conductivity meter HACH the surface ofmeasurement the At the ofthethe ChottCO150. and Sebkhet Bamendil, the to water is between 0.5 and 1ofm.water After thesitu wetable arelevel used Surfer software (version 9.11.947) make the spatialization 3.3. The in salinity ofground. the water samples situ with a conductivity meter HACH CO150. the surface ofmeasurement the ground. At the level ofthethe Chott and Sebkhet Bamendil, the to water is between 0.5 and 1ofm.water After the we are used Surfer software (version 9.11.947) make the spatialization table salinity and show the difference between its values in Ouargla Basin (Fig. 5). 3.3.After The salinity of the water table the measurement we are used the Surfer software (version 9.11.947) to make the spatialization of water tableThe salinity andofshow the difference between its values in Ouargla Basin (Fig. 5). 3.3. salinity the water table InThe order toand know thewater spacial distribution ofits this salinity, we are Basin measured table salinity the difference between values in Ouargla (Fig.the 5).electric conductivity of the 32 3.3. salinity ofshow the table In order to know spacial distribution of this salinity, we are measured the electric conductivity of the 32 samples in situ with athe conductivity meter HACH CO150. In order tomeasurement know spacial distribution of this salinity,(version we are measured to the electric the 32 samples in situ with athe conductivity meter HACH CO150. After the we are used the Surfer software the conductivity spatializationof water In order to know the spacial distribution of this salinity, we are 9.11.947) measured themake electric conductivity ofofthe 32 samples in situ with a conductivity meter HACH CO150. After the measurement are usedbetween the Surfer software 9.11.947) make the spatialization of water table salinity and show thewe difference its CO150. values in (version Ouargla Basin (Fig.to5). samples in situ with a conductivity meter HACH After the measurement are usedbetween the Surfer software 9.11.947) make the spatialization of water table salinity and show thewe difference its values in (version Ouargla Basin (Fig.to5). After the measurement are usedbetween the Surfer software 9.11.947) make the spatialization of water table salinity and show thewe difference its values in (version Ouargla Basin (Fig.to5). table salinity and show the difference between its values in Ouargla Basin (Fig. 5). P422

3575000 3575000 3575000

P422

Sabkhet Safioune

P422

Sabkhet Safioune

P001

P001 P002

Sabkhet Safioune P001 P002

3570000

P002

3570000 3570000 3575000

P422

P006Sabkhet Safioune P422 P001

3565000 3575000

P019 P006Sabkhet Safioune P422 P002 P001 EL Bour P006Sabkhet Safioune P019P422

3565000 3575000 3565000 3575000 3570000

P041

3560000 3570000

P043

EL Bour

N'Goussa P043 P019 P006 P012 P054 N'Goussa EL Bour P006 P041P019 P012 P015 EL Bour P054 P019 P041 Ain Moussa P056 P015 P054 EL Bour P057 P041 P015 Ain Moussa P056 P043

3555000 3565000 3555000 3565000 3560000 3550000 3560000 3550000 3560000

P057 P041 Ain Moussa N'Goussa P056 P012 P043 P057

3550000 3560000 3555000

P043 P054 P043

3545000 3555000

3540000 3550000 3540000 3550000 3540000 3550000 3545000 3535000 3545000 3535000 3545000 3535000 3545000 3540000 3540000 3540000 3540000 3535000 3535000 3535000 3535000

P006

N'Goussa P019 P043 P006 P012

3555000 3565000

3545000 3555000 3550000

P002

P041

3560000 3570000 3565000

3545000 3555000

P001 P002 EL Bour Sabkhet Safioune P001 EL Bour P002

P019 P041

3560000 3570000

N'Goussa P408

P012

N'Goussa

P165 PZ12 P162 P165 PZ12 P163 P165 P162 PZ12 P163 P162

P408 P015 P012 P163 N'Goussa P064 P408 Ain Moussa P423 P056 P012 P015 P054 P064 P096 P057 P423 Ain Moussa P015 P056 P054 P165 P064 P419 PL32 P096 Ouargla P057 P423 PZ12 P015 Ain Moussa PL23 P056 PL15 P162 PL10 P165 P096 P419 PL31 PL32 P057 Ouargla Ain Moussa P163 P056 PZ12 PL23 PL17 P408 PL13 P419 PL15 P162 P165 PL10 PL32 Ouargla PL21 P057 PL31 P113 PL23 PZ12 P163 PL27 PL15 P408 PL17 PL10 P165 PL13 P162 PL31 PL21 PZ12 P064 P113 P163 PL17 PL27 PL13 P408 P423 P162 PL21 P113 P163 PL27 P064 P096 P408 P423 P419 P413 P064 PL32 Ouargla P096 P423 PL23 PL15 PL10 P064 P419 P413 PL31 P096 715000 720000 PL32 Ouargla P423725000 PL23 PL17 PL13 PL15 P413 PL10 P419 PL21 P096 PL32 715000 720000 725000 Ouargla PL31 P113 (m) PL27 PL23 PL17 PL15 PL136000 P419 0 3000PL32 9000 PL10 715000 720000 725000 Ouargla PL21 PL31 P113 PL23 (m) PL27 PL15 PL17 PL136000 0 3000 PL10 9000 PL31 PL21 P113 (m) PL27 PL17 PL136000 0 3000 9000 PL21 P113 P413 PL27 P054

Fig. 5. The water table salinity of the Basin of Ouargla. Fig. 5. The water table salinity of the Basin of Ouargla. P413 715000 Fig. 5. The water720000 table salinity of the725000 Basin of Ouargla.

The obtained results shows that the salinity of the water table is linked to the lithological nature of aquifer The obtained resultsand shows that the salinity of climate the wateroftable linkedarea; to thecharacterized lithological nature of aquifer formation (evaporate carbonates) and the our isstudy by precipitation The obtained resultsand shows that the salinity of climate the wateroftable isstudy linkedarea; to thecharacterized lithological nature of aquifer formation (evaporate carbonates) and the our by precipitation insignificant (<50 mm/year) and high temperatures. Fig. 5. The water table salinity of theour Basinstudy of Ouargla. formation (evaporate and carbonates) and the climate of area; characterized by precipitation insignificant (<50 of mm/year) and are highfound temperatures. Larger values the salinity thetable piezometers, P162 and P163, which are: 154.73, 146.54 Fig. temperatures. 5. The in water salinity of theP064, Basin of Ouargla. insignificant (<50 mm/year) and are high Larger values of the salinity found in thetable piezometers, P064, P162 and P163, which are: 154.73, 146.54 , respectively. andThe 145.48 g.1 Fig. 5. The water salinity of the Basin of Ouargla. obtained results the salinity the water table is P162 linkedand to the lithological of aquifer Larger values of the shows salinitythat are found in theof piezometers, P064, P163, which are:nature 154.73, 146.54 Fig. 5. The water table salinity of the Basin of Ouargla. , respectively. andThe 145.48 g.1 : 2.41, 2.94, The obtained minimum values arecarbonates) obtained the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31, and PL10nature withprecipitation shows that theinsalinity of climate the water isstudy linked toPL054 thecharacterized lithological of aquifer - results formation (evaporate and and the oftable our area; by , respectively. and 145.48 g.1 -1 shows : 2.41, 2.94, The minimum values arecarbonates) obtained insalinity the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31, PL054 and PL10nature withprecipitation The obtained results that the of the water table is linked to the lithological of aquifer . 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l formation (evaporate and and the climate of our study area; characterized by insignificant (<50results mm/year) highthe temperatures. 2.94, The minimum values areand obtained insalinity the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31,toPL054 and PL10nature with-1: 2.41, -1 shows The obtained that of the water table is linked the lithological of aquifer . 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l formation (evaporate and carbonates) and the piezometers, climate of P064, our study area; characterized . 146.54 The restvalues of obtained water table salinity in Ouargla Basin varied between: 4 and are: 136by154.73, g.lprecipitation insignificant (<50 mm/year) andofare high temperatures. -1 results Larger of the salinity found in the P162 and P163, which . 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l -1 formation (evaporate and carbonates) and salinity the climate of our study area; characterized . The restvalues of results water table in Ouargla Basin varied between: 4 and 136by154.73, g.lprecipitation insignificant (<50 mm/year) andofare high temperatures. -obtained Larger of the results salinity found in salinity the piezometers, and P163, which , respectively. and 145.48 The restg.1 of obtained ofhigh water table in OuarglaP064, BasinP162 varied between: 4 and are: 136 g.l-1. 146.54 insignificant (<50 mm/year) and temperatures. Larger values of the salinity are found in piezometers: the piezometers, P064, P162 andPL054 P163, which are:with 154.73, 146.54 Conclusion and 145.48 g.1 , respectively. : 2.41, 2.94, The minimum values are obtained in the P422, PL15, PL31, PL10 Larger values of the salinity are found in the piezometers, P064, P162 and P163, and which are: 154.73, 146.54 Conclusion , respectively. and 145.48 g.1 -1 : 2.41, 2.94, The minimum values are obtained in the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31, PL054 and PL10 with 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l . Conclusion , respectively. and 145.48 g.1 -1 The minimum values are obtained in the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31, PL054 and PL10 with -1: 2.41, 2.94, In conclusion we can say that the piezometric depth of the water table of Ouargla Basin undergoes to a . 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l The rest of obtained results of waterintable salinity in Ouargla Basin varied between: 4 and 136with g.l : .2.41, 2.94, The minimum values are the piezometers: P422, PL15, PL31, PL054 and PL10 In conclusion we sayobtained that thecomparisons piezometric depth of the water table of Ouargla Basin undergoes to ina -1 . results 3.27, 5, 3.52, 3.80 g.l-1can drawdown relatively appreciable in to previous years, but the risk remains always especially . The rest of obtained of water table salinity in Ouargla Basin varied between: 4 and 136 g.l -1can say that the piezometric depth of the water table of Ouargla Basin undergoes to a In 5, conclusion we . 3.27, 3.52, 3.80 g.l -1 drawdown relatively appreciable in comparisons to previous years, but the risk remains always especially in The rest of obtained results of water table salinity in Ouargla Basin varied between: 4 and 136 g.l . Conclusion -1 drawdown appreciable in comparisons to in previous the between: risk remains in . The restrelatively of obtained results of water table salinity Ouarglayears, Basinbut varied 4 andalways 136 g.lespecially Conclusion Conclusion In conclusion we can say that the piezometric depth of the water table of Ouargla Basin undergoes to a Conclusion In conclusion we can say thatinthecomparisons piezometrictodepth of the water of Ouargla undergoes drawdown relatively appreciable previous years, buttable the risk remainsBasin always especiallyto ina 715000 0 715000 0 715000 0 0

720000

P413

725000 (m) 6000 P413 9000 720000 725000 (m) 3000 720000 6000 9000 725000 (m) 3000 6000 9000 (m) 3000 6000 9000 3000

8 578

I. Recioui, M. Daddi Bouhoun, D. Boutoutaou, A. Mihoub. / Energy Procedia00 (2017) 000–000 I. Recioui et al. / Energy Procedia 119 (2017) 571–578

areas of the palm grove where there is an overexploitation of deep aquifer which contribute the refill of the water table. On the other hand and according to obtained results we found that the risk of water salinity has variable values from point to another and this is according to the static level of water table. More than the piezometric level is close to the surface of soil, we found that the salinity increase especially in areas where there are Sebkhas or swamps. Thus it is noticed that there is proportional relationship between the water rising and the water table salinity in Ouargla Basin and the study of the spatial distribution of salinity shows that the lower areas in the Basin have very high mineralization. References [1] Lallemand-Barres A. Aménagement des sols salés, irrigation avec des eaux salées. Etude documentaire 1980 ; 28 p. [2] Valles V, Bourgeat F, Guiresse M. Calcul des doses d’irrigation pour les sols salés. Application d’une méthode géochimique de calcul à un sol tunisien. Cah ORSTOM sér Pédol vol XXIV no 2 1988; 115-122. [3] Daddi Bouhoun M. Contribution à l’étude de l’impact de la nappe phréatique et des accumulations gypso-salines sur l'enracinement et la nutrition du palmier dattier dans la cuvette de Ouargla (Sud Est algérien). Thèse Doct, Université BADJI Mokhtar, Annaba, 39 p ; 2010. [4] Cote M. Des oasis malades de trop d'eau? Sécheresse. 1998 ; 9 (2): 123-130. [5] Nezli IE, Achour S, Djabri L. Approche géochimique des processus d’acquisition de la salinité des eaux de la nappe phréatique de la basse vallée de l’oued m’ya Ouargla. Larhyss / Journal N ° 06, 2007 ; 14p. [6] Hamdi-Aïssa B, Girard MC. Apport des données satellitaires pour l’évaluation de l’impact sur l’environnement du risque salinisation dans l’écosystème désertique (cuvette de Ouargla, Algérie). 5ème colloque de géophysique des sols et des formations superficielles, Orléan, France, 2005 ; 20 et 21 septembre. [7] Jean-Paul L. La salinisation des terres dans le monde. Séance du lundi 22/06/2009, conférence n°4069, Bull. n°40, 2009 ; pp 257-269. [8] Daddi Bouhoun M, Brinis L. Etude de la dynamique des sels solubles dans un sol irrigué gypso-salin : cas d’une palmeraie de la cuvette de Ouargla ; J. Alg. Rég. Arides, N° spécial 2006 ; pp 17-20. [9] Zegait R. Contribution à l’étude du drainage agricole des palmeraies de la cuvette de Ouargla. Thèse Magistère. Ecoles Nationale Supérieure de l’Hydraulique, Blida 2009 ; 129p. [10] Daddi Bouhoun M, Saker ML, Boutoutaou D, Brinis L, Kemassi A, Ould El Hadj MD. Impact des eaux phréatiques sur la salinité et le rendement du palmier dattier à Ouargla. Algerian journal of arid environment, vol. 2, n° 2 2012; 71-77. [11] ONM Ouargla. Données météorologiques (2004-2014) de la station pluviométrique de Ain beida; 2015. [12] Messaîtfa A, Chaîche K. Bilan hydrologique de la Cuvette de Ouargla (sud-est algérien). Application à la remontée des eaux et à la salinisation des sols. Actes des journées internationales sur la désertification et le développement durable Biskra du 10 au 12 Juin 2006 ; p. 339-350. [13] IPTRID. Conférence électronique sur la salinisation: Extension de la salinisation et Stratégies de prévention et réhabilitation. 2006 ; 12p. [14] Simonneau P. Les phénomènes temporaires de salinisation des sols irrigués en Algérie et au Sahara. Ann. Agron 1961; 12 (6). [15] Robert M, Cheverry C. Les ressources mondiales en eau et en sols : une limitation pour l’avenir. Cah. Agr. 5 : 243-248 ; 1996. [16] Ayers RS, Westcot DW. La qualité de l'eau en agriculture. Bull. F.A.O. Irrig. Drain., 29 : 1-97 ; 1976. [17] Durand JH. Les sols irrigables. Etude pédologique. Ed. Imbert, Alger : 190 p ; 1958. [18] Richards LA. Diagnosis and improvements of saline and alkali soils. U.S Salinity Laboratory DA, US Dept. Agr. Hbk 60, 160 p ; 1954. [19] Rodier J. Analyse de l’eau : Eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eaux de mer. Paris, Dunod : 9ème édition : 134p ; 2009. [20] Idder T. Le problème des excédents hydriques à Ouargla : situation actuelle et perspectives d’amélioration. 2007; Sécheresse vol 18(3): 161-167. [21] Bureau P, Cointepas JP, Roederer P, Gilbert J. Tolérance à l’eau salée de quelques cultures pratiquées en Tunisie. 1959; S.S.E.P.H, Rép,Tunis ES 16. [22] Cointepas JP. Compte rendu concernant la parcelle d’essai de Ksar Rhilane. 1960 ; S.S.E.P.H., Rép. Tunis., ES 30. [23] Durand JH. Les sols irrigables. Etude pédologique. Impr. Imbert, Alger, 1958; 191 p. [24] Dutil P. Contribution à l'étude des sols et des paléosols du Sahara. Thèse Doct. ès Sci. Naturelles, Univ. Strasbourg, Strasbourg; 1971. 346 p. [25] Dubost D. Ecologie, aménagement et développement agricole des oasis algériennes. Thèse Doct. Université François Rabelais, Tours ; 1991. 544 p. [26] Rodier J, Bazin C, Broutin JP, Chambon P, Champsaur H, Rodi L. L'analyse de l'eau, eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eau de mer, chimie, physico-chimie, microbiologie, biologie, interprétation des résultats. Ed. Dunod, Paris, 1384 p ; 2005. [27] Lelièvre RF. Assainissement de la cuvette de Ouargla. Ministère des Travaux Publique et de la Construction, rapports Géohydraulique n°2, 18 p ; n° 3, 84 p, 1969. [28] Hamdi-Aïssa B, Halilat MT, Daddi Bouhoun M. Gestion de l’eau pour une agriculture durable au Sahara algérien. Séminaire international sur l’éco-développement durable en zones arides et semi-arides (ECODEV), Centre Universitaire de Ouargla, CRSTRA, EUROPA et Euro-Méditerranée, Ghardaïa du 6 au 8 février 2001 ; 328-332.