Sustainable technology for energy and environmental benign building design

Sustainable technology for energy and environmental benign building design

Authorโ€™s Accepted Manuscript Sustainable Technology for Energy Environmental Benign Building Design and Md. Faruque Hossain www.elsevier.com/locate...

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Authorโ€™s Accepted Manuscript Sustainable Technology for Energy Environmental Benign Building Design

and

Md. Faruque Hossain

www.elsevier.com/locate/jobe

PII: DOI: Reference:

S2352-7102(18)30283-3 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.12.001 JOBE647

To appear in: Journal of Building Engineering Received date: 14 March 2018 Revised date: 2 December 2018 Accepted date: 2 December 2018 Cite this article as: Md. Faruque Hossain, Sustainable Technology for Energy and Environmental Benign Building Design, Journal of Building Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.12.001 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Sustainable Technology for Energy and Environmental Benign Building Design Md. Faruque Hossain1,2 1 Green Globe Technology, 4323 Colden Street 15L, Flushing, New York 11355, USA 2 Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, New York University, 6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 Abstract

A sustainable technology has been proposed to satisfy the total energy and gas demand for a building which can be produced by the building itself without any outsource connection. To satisfy the energy demand of 100% of a building some portion of its exterior curtain wall skin can be used as the black body acting PV (photovoltaic) panel to capture solar energy and convert it into electricity energy. The domestic waste including humane feces is proposed to be implemented into transforming process in site where sludge shall be collected into a closed anaerobic detention tank at cellar to introduce into a bioreactor; allowing to produce biogas (CH4) by Methenogenesis, then store, and utilize it for cooking and HAVC equipment. Then, the separated waste water to be collected and treated in site by applying all primary, secondary, and tertiary process and the treated water be used for gardening, and landscaping. Combined all these technologies simply would be an innovative field in sustainable science where a building can itself produce electricity and gas without any outsource connection to meet its total energy and gas demand which is benign to the environment. Keywords: Solar Energy, Building Exterior Skin PV Panel, In Situ Waste and Water Treatment, Methanogenesis, Bio Energy, and Environmental Sustainability

Introduction Climate change depends much on buildings as nearly 40% of energy consumption from burning fossil fuel is used by buildings (8,19,30). In 2015, the annual global energy consumption was 5.59 ร— 1020 joules = 559 EJ, in which 2.236x1020 EJ is consumed by residential and commercial buildings (15,22). Because of this level of

energy consumption, buildings have produced nearly 8.01x1011 ton CO2 (218 gtC by building of global total 545 gtC; 1 gtC = 109 ton C = 3.67 gt CO2). The acceleration of using fossil energy by building sector is still increasing worldwide, the condition will not be changed until a sophisticated renewable technology is been developed. Currently, the atmospheric CO2 level is 400 ppm which can be reduced to a comfortable level of 300 ppm CO2 once renewable energy application are being widely used in building sector (40,42). Certainly, a better technology is required for building sector to ensure a cleaner, greener environment by deploying sustainable technology to alleviate energy and environmental perplexity. In this paper, thus, a zero-emission building (ZEB) technology which is a combination of the innovative PV system and the bioenergy production by the building itself has been proposed. In this concept, a building with zero emission building (ZEB) shall greatly be an interesting one to balance of its energy demand if the certain part of the building skin is designed to be a black body assisted PV (photovoltaic) panel to capture solar energy which will reduce nearly 8.01x1011 ton CO2 per year (7,15,16.) In addition to self-producing energy by a building, the domestic waste including human feces and waste water of the building are to be chosen that can be collected into the closed detention tank into the cellar. Then the waste can be separated as (i) waste water, and (ii) humane feces with solid waste into two different chambers. Then the Methenogenesis process would be allowed into the closed detention tank to produce bioenergy in context with domestic solid waste and human feces utilization. It is estimated that a person can produce 0.4-0.5kg/day and 0.5 kg/day that can form the 0.4 m3 biogas/day and this amount of biogas (0.4 m3/day) production which is good enough to cook three meals for a family of four persons in day. Subsequently, the treated waste water in site by applying all primary, secondary, and tertiary process can be used for gardening and landscaping for a building. Application these sustainable technologies would be an interesting field of science to satisfy all its total energy and gas demand which is produced by the building itself which environmentally friendly.

Simulation and Method Model of Photovoltaic (PV) Array A mathematical model of photovoltaic module has been developed to describe the photovoltaic generator for maximum solar energy intaking considering radiation shield, thermocouple, and temperature of the building exterior skin PV panel (Figure 1a). Naturally, the model of the photovoltaic solar irradiance absorbed by the photovoltaic module can be simplified for the maximum power output connected with the temperature module and logarithmic with the solar radiation (12,34,36). The calculation of accuracy and the number of parameters of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic are necessarily explain the model in single diode equivalent circuit of a PV cell module (3,5,35). Then, using large-scale variation of the irradiance collected by the photovoltaic array at various parameters (voltage proliferation, transformation rate, and PVVI curves) and least control strategy to be used to realize the active and reactive solar volt (Iv+) can be calculated from the model with one diode (Figure 1b).

a

b

Figure 1. Diagram of PV system model, (a) The module flow chart once photovoltaic solar irradiance on the photovoltaic mode considering radiation shield, thermocouple and temperature to get LVG (localized Voltage Gain), (b) Simulink block diagram of PV solar array source and the block data of its parameters respectively.

The next step is to determine the photovoltaic current production by Ipv calculation from the model of one diode (Figure 2a), considering I-V-R relationship (Figure 2b), and using the illumination received by the photovoltaic array to convert from DC to AC and then use for domestic energy and low voltage current demand (Figure 2c).

a

b

c

Domestic Low

Domestic

Voltage

Energy

Figure 2. Single-diode circuit of a photovoltaic (PV) cell modeled by MATLAB simulation, (a) the photovoltaic current production, (b) the model with a diode considering I-V-R relationship (c), the conversion process of DC to AC for the use of domestic energy and low voltage current for the building.

The following equation calculates the energy output of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, whose basis is solar radiation and ambient temperature: ๐‘ƒ๐‘๐‘ฃ = ๐œ‚๐‘๐‘ฃ๐‘” ๐ด๐‘๐‘ฃ๐‘” ๐บ๐‘ก

(1)

In this equation, ฮทpvg refers to the PV-generation efficiency, Apvg refers to the PV generator area (m2), and Gt refers to the solar radiation in a titled module plane (W/m2). ฮทpvg can be further defined as: ๐œ‚๐‘๐‘ฃ๐‘” = ๐œ‚๐‘Ÿ ๐œ‚๐‘๐‘ [1 โˆ’ ๐›ฝ(๐‘‡๐‘ โˆ’ ๐‘‡๐‘ ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘“ )]

(2)

ฮทpc refers to the power conditioning efficiency, when MPPT applied, it is equal to 1; ฮฒ refers to temperature coefficient (0.004-0.006 per ยฐC); ฮทr refers to the reference module efficiency; and Tcref refers to the reference cell temperature in ยฐC. The reference cell temperature (Tcref) can be obtained from the relation below: ๐‘‡๐‘ = ๐‘‡๐‘Ž + (

๐‘๐‘‚๐ถ๐‘‡โˆ’20 800

)๐บ๐‘ก

(3)

Ta refers to the ambient temperature in ยฐC, Gt refers to the solar irradiance in a tilted module plane (W/m2), and NOCT refers to the standard operating cell temperature in Celsius (ยฐC) degree. The total irradiance in the solar cell, considering both standard and diffuse solar irradiance, can be estimated by the following equation: ๐ผ๐‘ก = ๐ผ๐‘ ๐‘…๐‘ + ๐ผ๐‘‘ ๐‘…๐‘‘ + (๐ผ๐‘ + ๐ผ๐‘‘ )๐‘…๐‘Ÿ

(4)

The solar cells, which is essentially a P-N junction semiconductor able to produce electricity via the PV effect, which is interconnected in a series-parallel configuration to form a photovoltaic (PV) cell (6,12,47). Besides, to improve the efficiency of the resulting photovoltaic (PV), graphene is integrated into the PV module (36,37,54).

Using a standard single diode, as depicted in Fig. 2, for a cell with Ns

series-connected arrays and Np parallel-connected arrays, the cell current must be related to the cell voltage as ๐‘ž(๐‘‰+๐ผ๐‘…๐‘  )

๐ผ = ๐‘๐‘ [๐ผ๐‘โ„Ž โˆ’ ๐ผ๐‘Ÿ๐‘  [exp(

๐ด๐พ๐‘‡๐‘๐‘ 

โˆ’ 1)]]

(5)

where ๐‘‡

๐ธ

1

1

๐ผ๐‘Ÿ๐‘  = ๐ผ๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ÿ (๐‘‡ )3 ๐‘’๐‘ฅ๐‘ [๐ด๐พ๐บ (๐‘‡ โˆ’ ๐‘‡)] ๐‘Ÿ

๐‘Ÿ

(6)

In equation 5 and 6, q refers to the electron charge (1.6 ร— 10-19 C), K refers to Boltzmannโ€™s constant, A refers to the diode idealist factor, and T refers to the cell temperature (K). Irs refers to the cell reverse saturation current at T, Tr refers to the cell referred temperature, Irr refers to the reverse saturation current at Tr, and EG refers to the band gap energy of the semiconductor used in the cell. The photo current Iph varies with the cellโ€™s temperature and radiation as follows: ๐‘†

๐ผ๐‘โ„Ž = [๐ผ๐‘†๐ถ๐‘… + ๐‘˜๐‘– (๐‘‡ โˆ’ ๐‘‡๐‘Ÿ ) 100]

(7)

ISCR refers to the cell short-circuit current at the reference temperature and irradiance, ki refers to the short-circuit current temperature coefficient, and S refers to the solar irradiance (mW/cm2). The I-V characteristics of the photovoltaic (PV) cell can be derived using a single-diode model which includes an additional shunt resistance concurrent with the optimal shunt diode model as follows: ๐ผ = ๐ผ๐‘โ„Ž โˆ’ ๐ผ๐ท

(8) ๐‘ž(๐‘‰+๐‘…๐‘  ๐ผ)

๐ผ = ๐ผ๐‘โ„Ž โˆ’ ๐ผ0 [exp (

๐ด๐พ๐‘‡

โˆ’ 1)]

(9)

Iph refers to the photo current (A), ID refers to the diode current (A), I0 refers to the inverse current (A), A refers to the diode constant, q refers to the charge of the electron (1.6 ร— 10-19 C), K refers to Boltzmannโ€™s constant, T refers to the cell temperature (ยฐC), Rs refers to the series resistance (ohm), Rsh refers to the shunt resistance (Ohm), I refers to the cell current (A), and V refers to the cell voltage (V). The output current of the PV cell using the single model can be described as follows: ๐ผ = ๐ผ๐‘ƒ๐‘‰ โˆ’ ๐ผ๐ท1 โˆ’ ( where

๐‘‰+๐ผ๐‘…๐‘† ๐‘…๐‘†๐ป

)

(10)

๐ผ๐ท1 = ๐ผ01 [exp (

๐‘‰+๐ผ๐‘…๐‘  ๐‘Ž1 ๐‘‰๐‘‡1

) โˆ’ 1]

(11)

I and I01 are the reverse currents of diode 1, respectively, and VT1 and VT2 are the thermal voltages of the respective diode. The diode idealist constants are represented by a1. The simplified model of the photovoltaic (PV) system model is presented below: ฮณ ๐‘‰

๐‘ฃ๐‘œ๐‘ = ๐‘๐พ ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐‘‡/๐‘ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘š๐‘Ž๐‘ฅ =

๐‘‰๐‘œ๐‘ ๐‘‰ โˆ’ln( ๐‘œ๐‘ +0.72) ๐‘๐พ ๐‘‡/๐‘ž ๐‘๐พ ๐‘‡/๐‘ž ๐‘‰ (1+ ๐‘œ๐‘ ) ๐พ ๐‘‡/๐‘ž

(12) (1 โˆ’

๐‘‰๐‘œ๐‘ ๐‘‰๐‘œ๐‘ ๐ผ๐‘†๐ถ

)(

๐‘‰๐‘œ๐‘0

๐บ 1+๐›ฝ ln 0 ๐บ

๐‘‡

๐บ

๐‘‡

๐บ๐‘œ

)( ๐‘œ )ฮณ ๐ผ๐‘ ๐‘0 ( )ฮฑ

(13)

where ฮฝoc refers to the normalized value of the open-circuit voltage Voc related to the thermal voltage Vt = nkT/q, c refers constant current flow, K refers to Boltzmannโ€™s constant, T refers to the temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) module in Kelvin, ฮฑ refers to the factor responsible for all the non-linear effects on which the photocurrent depends, q refers to the electron charge, ฮณ refers to the factor representing all the non-linear temperature-voltage effects, while ฮฒ refers to a photovoltaic (PV) module technology-specific dimensionless coefficient. Equation (14) only represents the maximum energy output of a single photovoltaic (PV) module while a real system consists of several photovoltaic (PV) modules connected in series and in parallel. Therefore, the equation of total power output for an array with Ns cells connected in series and Np cells connected in parallel with power PM for each module would be ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ž๐‘ฆ = ๐‘๐‘  ๐‘๐‘ ๐‘ƒ๐‘€

(14)

Design of PV panel To ensure the high efficiency of conversion rate of solar energy, long lasting ability and other essential abilities of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, nanocrystalline materials and films of conductive polymers, using exterior skin of the building wall, are introduced as the materials to build up an advanced photovoltaic (PV) panel (27,28,46). In addition, load resistant factor design (LRFD), which primarily uniformly distributed wind load should also be considered when design such sophisticated photovoltaic (PV) panel to ensure that it is strong enough to protect

itself and operate regularly under storm condition. To guarantee that the tornado resistant PV panel is strong enough, it should have the following wind load resistant capacity of wind velocity (F6 tornado level) 379 mile/hour) at standard air density 1.2 kg/m3 and wind pressure and drag coefficient 1.00 considering per meter square (m2). Since the wind stagnation pressure is half the density of the air times the square of the velocity, the equation for wind pressure can be expressed as ๐‘

2 ๐‘ ๐‘ฃ๐‘Ÿ

= .

where ๐‘

(16)

is the wind pressure (Pa),

represents air density (kg/m3),

๐‘

represents wind pressure coefficient, and ๐‘ฃ๐‘Ÿ2 represents wind velocity (m/s) at building height. Therefore, the final calculation of Pw = 0.5 x 1.2 kg/m3 x 3792 m/s is 86,185 Pa and the net wind load be calculated as F = area X drag coefficient X stagnation pressure by following equation. =1

2

๐‘ฅ 1. ๐‘ฅ

1

=

1

๐‘(

๐‘˜

)=1

(17)

Once the sophisticated wind load resistance capacity has been determined, the PV panel need to be analyzed to capture maximum sun light during the whole year based on different directional angles, which can be defined as a spherical coordinate system called Cartesian coordinate system, as shown in Figure 3, whose x represents for horizon conventions, y for east-west, z for zenith. The position of the celestial body in this system is decided by h represents for height and A represents for the azimuth angle while the equatorial system uses the protocol that the z axis points to the North Pole, the y axis identical to the system horizon, and x axis perpendicular to both. Besides, the ฮด decline and ฯ‰ angle hours can also determine the position and analysis generally leads to the insertion of vector control strategies to regulate the active and reactive power based on the combination of different controls, which is reproducible and useable to other complex systems (4,10,11).

a b

Figure 3. The Cartesian coordinate system. (a) Cartesian coordinates analysis shown the equatorial system, and vector control considering the effect of the placement of solar PV systems, (b) Points A to D are chosen to test instrument measurement repeatability and analyze interocular symmetry considering the angles ฮฑ, ฮฒ and ฮณ to right the maximum solar irradiance capture.

The properties of sunlight are considered because of electromagnetic waves and movement of photon flux applied to solar panel since the photo-physical relates to photo-induced the charges (8,31). The first view is fundamental for all applications of solar thermal energy and anti-reflective coatings for solar cells while the second view is also basic with respect to solar cells and solar photochemistry. The combination of the two views is represented by quantum electrodynamics, one of the most fruitful and matured technology in modern physics fields (17, 18). All the hot bodies emit radiation, while black bodies emit the maximum amount of radiation at a given approximately 7000C temperature. However, changes in body color to orange, yellow, white, blue and efficiencies in overlapping loads have been calculated in bandgap and the sun and cells which supposed to be at temperatures of 6000ยฐK and 300ยฐK, respectively (36). The energy density of the solar radiation considering the photon wave frequency has been modeled by using the classical statistical physics in Figure 4a. Then, the maximum solar energy formation considering a single photon excitation at the rate of 1.4 eV with an energy value of 27.77 MW/m2 ยท eV has been modeled in Figure 4b.

Frequency (Hz)

a

b

Figure 4. (a) The energy density of the solar radiation frequencies shown by the classical statistical physics, (b) The maximum solar energy formation of a single photon at designated wave length (Ultraviolet to Infrared) and frequencies (1017 Hz to 1014 Hz) at the rate of 1.4 eV with an energy value of 27.77 MW/m2 ยท eV. Design of Bioreactor As have mentioned in previous part, building solid waste can be collected into the closed detention tank into the cellar of a building and then be separated into waste water and humane feces including domestic waste into two different chambers. During this process it need to be conducted to treat the waste water by preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, and disinfection. The whole

treatments process can remove nearly 100% pollutants from the wastewater and disinfect the effluent, furthermore, the final product can be utilized for local gardening and landscaping.

Figure 5. Waste water treatment process where effluent is shall be used for gardening and sludge is for further process to produce the biogas.

Besides the treated waste water in situ, the product sludge shall undergo in situ anaerobic tank to produce bioenergy. It is a transformation process by performing filters electrochemically active carbon nanotubes (CNT), which can adsorb and oxidize chemicals in the anode effectively (23,41). It is a novel system of waste treatment to combine both adsorption and oxidation at the anode CNT and further oxidation in situ generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the cathode CNT in a small-scale. The factors affecting the efficiency of the treatment, and the oxidation mechanism of the system is studied systematically. The model of this calculation demonstrated that H2O2 flow may be affected by the electrode material, the cathode potential, pH, flow rate, and oxygen dissolved (37,39,50). The maximum flow H2O2 of 1.38 mol L-1 m-2 C are to be achieved CNT L-1 m-2 with an applied cathodic potential V -0.4 (vs. Ag / AgCl), a pH of 6.46, a rate flow 1.5 ml min-1 and a DO influent flow of 1.95 mol L-1 m-2. Furthermore, phenol can be used as aromatic compound model for assessing the removal efficiency of the system and its oxidation

rate correlated directly with H2O2 flow. H2O2 shall probably react with a phenol species anodically activated to itself, which is the reason why H2O2 radical form cannot remove phenol efficiently. In addition, the formation of electrochemical polymer through chain reactions phenolic radicals can also contribute to 13% of phenol removal. A stable removal efficiency of 87.0 ยฑ phenol 1.8% to 4 h of continuous operation can be achieved with an average rate of oxidation of 0.059 ยฑ 0.001 mol h-1 m-2 (28,39). The electrochemical CNT filtering system thus developed with H2O2 generated in situ for a new application of filters in this process, where carbon nanotubes can be used as an effective treatment for removing organic pollutants nearly 100%.

Figure 6. Biochemical path of methanogenesis to chain reaction for producing methane from domestic waste including humane feces where Methanococcus and Desulfovivrio bacteria are the main catalyst.

After this step, the product can be stored in a closed chamber to allow the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion process to thicken. Then, the sludge is to be placed in free oxygen tanks called digesters and heated to at least 95OF for 10 to 15

days to stabilize the thickened sludge by converting much of the material into methane gas (2,7). It will therefore make it safer environment for the bioreactor when waste being discharged, which will stimulate the growth of anaerobic bacteria of Desulfovivrio, Methanecoccus, that consumes organic matter in the sludge and thrive in a free anaerobic environment, which is different with bacteria in the aeration tanks.

Figure 7. The methanogenesis process shows the detail biochemical process of M. maripaludis and D. vulgaris bacterial syntrophic interaction, highlighting the central energy-generating and consuming the mechanism to produce methane as a source of bioenergy.

Results and Discussion Conversion of Solar Energy To establish a connection between the number of light-quanta by steady state๏ผŒthe intensity of solar irradiance is considered as the primary source of energy volts to convert it into electricity energy by PV panel (13,31). The number of stationary states of light-quanta is a certain type of polarization whose frequency is in the range of ฮฝr to ฮฝr + dฮฝr. From there maximum solar radiation it can be achieved at 1.4 eV with an energy value of 27. 77 mW/m2 ยท eV based on an average of 5 hours solar irradiance

harvesting in a day peak levels, which is the equivalent of 27,770 kWh / year or 7.6 kWh / day energy (3,45). Due to physical principles, there are losses in the conversion of solar energy into DC power and converting direct current into alternating current (AC). This ratio of AC to DC is called "derating factor ', which is typically 0.8 (23,36). Thus, the surface texture of selective solar metal is excellent in energy conversion (33, 34), since the current net conversion by solar panels is 125% higher level with an efficiency of 80% (8,13,14) of solar panels which means that (27,770 x 1.25 x 0.8) = 27,770kWh/year or 7.6 kWh/day. Energy remains equal to the solar initially what was before the introduction to the solar panel. Necessarily, the maximum solar irradiance is depicted 1.4 eV with an energy value of 27.77 mW / m2 ยท eV in Figure 8 per year in an average of five hours a day maximum levels for 365 days referents by panel Solar and black body (6,9,33). A standard residential house requires average 12 kWh/day (2,12,36). Since the produced energy is equivalent to 27,770 kWh / year or 7.6 kWh / day, which in fact will meet the energy demand for a residential house required 12 kW/day by using only two solar panel of 1 m2 each. The average energy consumption rate monthly of commercial office or buildings is about 10,000 kWh/day for a foot printing 32m x 31m with 30 meters (10 floors), respectively (18,21,29). In calculation of a building is an average of 32m x 31m footprint with a height of 30m, total installed 1m2 PV panels requires 1,195 units (945 + 250) with the capacity of 7.6kWh/unit energy production can provide total energy x 1,195 = 9,082kWh/day to meet the daily energy demand of about10,000 kWh/day for a commercial office or building.

Figure 8. The figure depicted the blackbody radiation in various temperature at 5770 K power is 6.31 ร— 107 (W/m2); Peak E is 1.410 (eV); Peak ฮป is 0.88 (ฮผm); Peak ยต is

2.81x107 (W/m2ยทeV).

Cost Comparison The total cost for 30 years energy consumption from a conventional source for a standard building (100 people capacity) at 0.12/kwh of 4000kwh per month is (30 x 12x 4000 x 0.12) = $172,800. On the other hand, the following data calculated the net cost of solar energy panel installation and energy production and maintenance for 30 years. Design and Construction Cost of the Solar Panel for Energy Production a 10 Stories Building List of Component

Materials Cost

Solar Panel $10,000 Instrumentation $2,000 Electrical, and $2,500 Mechanical Control Supply for 30 Years cost at $0.05/kwh for monthly 4000 kwh for 1000 people

Labor Cost

Equipment Cost

GC & OH Total Cost Cost

$5,000 $1,000

$2,500 $2,000

$3,500 $1,000

$21,000 $6,000

$1,000

$1,000

$900

$5,400

$72,000

Total Cost

$104,400

Table 01: This estimate is (1 m2 each solar panel and total 1195 panels) prepared by confirming recent (June 2017) cost of material for selective manufacturer and labor rate added in accordance with international of union specified trade workers Considering US location. The equipment rental cost is calculated as current rental market in conjunction with the standard practice of construction of the production rate. This comparison between conventional energy use and solar panel energy production clearly shows a cost saving of $68,400 when solar panel is used as the energy source for a building.

Conversion of Biogas Since the anaerobic Co-digestions of domestic perishable waste and human feces is conducted into the bioreactor, thus, the methanogenesis started into the bioreactor

immediately. Consequently, the inorganic loading rate started to form COD from the various parameters of Raw thermophilic, Raw Mesophilic, Ground Thermophilic, Row Mesophilic, Sludge Thermophilic, and Sludge Mesophilic condition of the waste (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Shows the inorganic (COD) loading rate formation in (a) Raw thermophilic, and Raw Mesophilic, (b) Ground Thermophilic, and Raw Mesophilic, (c) Sludge Thermophilic, and Sludge Mesophilic condition of the waste. The effects of inorganic loading rate are enforced to form anaerobic digestion foaming to produce Bio Energy (CH4), and Fig. 10 shows the results of the formation

of bioenergy (CH4) which is examined by computerized gas chromatograph and plotted.

a b

Figure 10. (a) The effects of inorganic loading rate to produce Bio Energy (CH4) (b) the production of daily biogas levels considering biogas yields; methane contents; and methane yields during the continuous anaerobic digestion of the waste.

The successful biogas production is practicality at low costs and will have the broad variety of applicable forms to produce heat, steam, electricity, and the utilization at the house hold kitchen gas.

Cost Comparison The total cost for gas supply from a conventional source of utility company and/or agency for a standard ten (10) story building at $100/floors/month is (1000x50x12x30) = $1,800,000 in 30 years consumption. Similarly, the comparison between conventional utility company and/or agency gas use and the on-site biogas production by conducting the following data calculation of bioreactor installation and energy production for 30 years and supply to the domestic use revealed a cost saving of $1,400,400 (Table 2). Design and Construction Cost of the Biogas Production for a 10 Stories Building List of Component Detention Chamber Bioreactor Electrical, and Mechanical Control Gas Supply and Maintenance for 30 Years at $2,000/year

Materials Cost $10,000 $100,000

Labor Cost $5,000 $75,000

Equipment Cost $2,500 $50,000

GC & OH Total Cost Cost $3,500 $21,000 $45,000 $270,000

$20,500

$10,000

$10,000

$8,100

$48,600

$60,000

Total Cost

$399,600

Table 02: This estimate was prepared by confirming recent (June 2017) cost of material for selective manufacturer and labor rate added in accordance with international of union specified trade workers considering US location. The equipment rental cost is calculated as current rental market in conjunction with the standard practice of construction of the production rate.

Conclusion The development of residential and commercial buildings in cities, suburban and rural areas around the world are accelerating exponentially over the last few decades. Consequently, climate change is increasing rapidly due to conventional energy consumption by the building sector. In addition, traditional domestic waste and wastewater management are creating severe environmental pollution, causing damage to human health and harmful to flora and fauna in the aquatic environment. Here, the โ€œGreen Scienceโ€, an innovative technology could be the cutting-edge science to solve the energy, and gas demand for a building. Just because this technology โ€œGreen Scienceโ€ could produce these two vital needs by itself by using the exterior building skin as the PV panel to produce energy and domestic waste as the source to produce gas that would in fact be the most innovative technology for building a sustainable world.

Acknowledgements Md. Faruque Hossain is the sole author of this paper. He wrote and reviewed the main text of the manuscript and prepared all the figures and tables for this article.

Additional Information This research was supported by Green Globe Technology under grant RD-02018-01 to building a better environment. It is does not have any financial interest by any means. Any findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this paper are solely those of the author, who confirm that the article has no conflicts of interest for publication in a suitable journal.

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Highlights ๏‚ท Solar energy has been implemented into the exterior curtain wall of a building to produce clean energy by the building itself to meet its total energy demand ๏‚ท Domestic waste including human fasces has been transformed into biogas by using methanogenesis process in the cellar of a building to run the HVAC and cooking equipment ๏‚ท Domestic waste water has been treated in site to use it local landscaping and gardening