TUESDAY, OCTOBER 2
POSTER SESSION: WELLNESS AND PUBLIC HEALTH Title: MATERNAL FEEDING STYLE AS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR TO INFANT WEIGHT GAIN Author(s): J. Worobey, M. M. Medina, I. Martin; Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Text: This investigation was conducted to identify precursors of excess weight gain in the first year of life. Given national findings on risk factors for child overweight, we deliberately enrolled low-income minority mothers who were to be formulafeeding their infants. Maternal demographic data, infant growth measures, and maternal attitudes toward feeding and infant size were obtained after recruiting 124 mother-infant dyads that were visited when the infants were approximately 3-, 6- and 12months-old. At 3- and 6-months, each mother was observed feeding her infant, interviewed as to her infant’s temperament, and instructed to keep a 24-hour diary of all things fed to her baby, and her infant weighed and measured. At 12-months the families were again visited to obtain infant growth measures. Regression analyses were run to examine predictors from the initial set of variables to weight gain from birth to 3-months, 3month measures to weight gain from 3-6 months, and 6-month measures to weight gain from 6-12 months. None of the demographic, weight, attitudinal or temperament variables were associated with weight gain to 3-months. The number of feeds per day at 3-months was the only predictor to weight gain from 3-6 months, with maternal insensitivity to infant feeding cues additionally predictive from 6-12 months. As maternal insensitivity and more frequent feeds were the most salient predictors of greater weight gain, dietitians should pay special attention to guiding formula-feeding mothers who may be at risk for over feeding their infants. Funding Disclosure: National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Funded by NIH grants R03HD039697 and R01HD047338.
Title: KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-EFFICACY INCREASE IN YOUNG GIRL SCOUTS® AFTER PARTICIPATION IN A 3-A-DAY™ OF DAIRY PEER EDUCATION PROGRAM Author(s): S. M. Nickols-Richardson,1 D. E. Parra,2 E. Serrano2; 1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Learning Outcome: To discuss changes in knowledge and selfefficacy of young Girl Scouts® after participating in a 3-A-Day™ of dairy peer education program. Text: Intake of low-fat dairy foods, including fluid milk, is an important component of osteoporosis, hypertension, and overweight prevention. Fluid milk consumption wanes as children age, particularly in girls. The purpose of this project was to deliver a 3-A-Day™ of dairy peer education program to Girl Scouts® to increase knowledge of calcium-rich foods, low-fat dairy foods, bone-related nutrients in dairy foods, the recommended daily servings of dairy foods, chronic diseases associated with poor dairy intake, weight-bearing exercises, and self-efficacy, attitudes, and behaviors toward consuming dairy foods and engaging in physical activity. Thirteen Junior Girl Scouts®, aged 9 to 10 years, developed and delivered a 3-A-Day™ of dairy peer education program to a total of 57 Girl Scouts®, aged 5 to 11 years. Six peer education programs were conducted; programs included a variety of lessons and activities grounded in the Social Cognitive Theory of behavioral change. Girls completed pre- and post-tests before and after the programs, respectively. These Girl Scouts® significantly increased their knowledge of calcium-rich foods (p⬍0.001), the recommended daily servings of dairy foods (p⬍0.01), chronic diseases associated with inadequate dairy intake (p⬍0.001), weight-bearing exercises (p⬍0.001), and self-efficacy toward consuming dairy foods and engaging in physical activity (p⬍0.01) after program participation. On a scale of 0 (low) to 2 (high), the mean program evaluation score, rated by these 57 participants, was 1.86 ⫾ 0.40. Young Girl Scouts® gave a high rating to this 3-A-Day™ of dairy peer education program which effectively increased knowledge and selfefficacy in participants. Funding Disclosure: National Dairy Council
Title: BODY MASS INDEX, SEX, AND MEAL DIFFERENCES IN KILOCALORIES OBSERVED EATEN BY FOURTH-GRADE CHILDREN AT SCHOOL MEALS IN SPRING, 2001 Author(s): J. A. Royer,1 S. D. Baxter,1 J. W. Hardin,2 C. H. Guinn1; 1 Institute for Families in Society, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 2Center for Health Services and Policy Research, and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC Learning Outcome: To describe whether kilocalories observed eaten by fourth-grade children at school breakfast and school lunch in Spring, 2001 varied by body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), sex, race (Black, White), meal (breakfast, lunch), and observation day (1st, 2nd). Text: Data from a study conducted in Spring, 2001 in 9 schools (in one district) were analyzed to investigate children’s observed kilocalories at school meals. On each of two days separated by ⱖ29 days, each of 121 children (stratified by race and sex) was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch. Children selected a cold (e.g., cereal) or hot (e.g., pancake) breakfast. For lunch, children selected one of three daily entre´es and milk; remaining items were served because “offer vs. serve” was not an option. Amount observed eaten per item was recorded in servings (0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, or the actual number if ⬎1). Energy for each item’s standardized serving was obtained from NDSR and multiplied by the serving amount eaten; for items not in that database, product information and recipes from the district were used. In the afternoon on days when observations were not conducted, weight and height (without shoes) were measured on a digital scale and portable stadiometer to the nearest 1/10 pound and 1/8 inch, respectively. Regression of kilocalories observed indicated significance for BMI (p⫽0.006), sex (p⫽0.001), and meal (p⬍0.001) but not race, observation day, or any interactions. For every 1 unit increase in BMI, 5 kilocalories more were eaten (adjusted for sex and meal). Boys ate 52 kilocalories more than girls (adjusted for BMI and meal). At lunch, 313 kilocalories more were consumed than at breakfast (adjusted for BMI and sex). In conclusion, observed kilocalories at school meals differed by BMI, sex, and meal. Funding Disclosure: Grant R01 HL63189 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health; SD Baxter was Principal Investigator.
A-112 / August 2007 Suppl 3—Abstracts Volume 107 Number 8
Title: TELEVISED COMMERCIALS MARKETING HEALTH TO CANADIAN YOUTH: A PASSING FAD? Author(s): L. A. Wadsworth; Department of Human Nutrition, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, NS, Canada Learning Outcome: To recognize food industry advertising responses during the current obesity trends Text: Research Outcome: Television viewing time is termed a chronic disease risk factor and an indicator of less healthy nutritional lifestyle choices. Using Stevenson’s audience research paradigm, an interpretive approach to communications research, Canadian Saturday morning youth programming has been monitored since 1989. Methods: Data from YTV (the main Canadian network exclusively carrying youth programming) were analyzed using frequency content analysis coupled with qualitative analysis, and contrasted with previous study data. Results: In June 2005, food industry commercials aggressively promoted active healthy lifestyles (14.7% total ad time), most instances coming from fast food companies. However, mixed messages were abundant since promotion of energy dense foods in other commercials and contests remained high. This overt health marketing trend was not as evident by September 2005 (11.5% total ad time), but an active living referent became more embedded within commercials (12.2% vs. 2.1%). Much of this socially responsible advertising likely stems from the current vilification of the food industry concerning obesity trends. Commercial time devoted to products for adults was added to programming in 2005, indicating recognition of youth influence on family purchases by advertisers. Thus, eliminating commercials aimed at children may not eliminate their consumer influence attempts. Conclusions: It appears that the obesity trends mobilized the food industry to support healthy lifestyles, though through simplification of a complex etiology to one of simple personal choice, with this stressing physical activity to the virtual exclusion of healthy eating. Continued monitoring of media content has strong implications for health program and policy planning. Funding Disclosure: None