Carbenoxolone (75 mg/kg) reduced the protective potency of GBP against the clonic phase of PTZ seizures. The anticonvulsant activity of VPA and TGB was unaffected by CBX. Conclusions. Carbenoxolone reduced the protective potency of GBP against PTZ test although this inhibitor of gap-junctions increased the convulsive threshold per se.
isolated or associated with tumor or hippocampal sclerosis. Nine patients were seizure free one year after surgery. Conclusions. Our data suggest that organization of temporo-frontal connections can be influenced by lateralization and etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy; hypermotor semiology was associated with developmental lesion in the non-dominant temporal lobe. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.04.095
doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.04.093 Pre-operative educational status of children with focal epilepsy Evaluation of anticonvulsant effect of new 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives on PTZ and MES-induced seizure in male mice M. Miri, R. Miri, Medicinal & Natural Products Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Objective. Calcium channel blocker drugs including 1,4dihydropyridines are used in the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular, convulsion, etc. The researches for the development of more effective drugs with less adverse effects and longer duration of action are carried out. The objective of this study is to evaluate a class of newly synthesized DHP compounds as anticonvulsant. Methods. For this purpose the anticonvulsant effects of 20 new synthesized DHP compounds were investigated in PTZ and MESinducing convulsion models in male mice. Results. Results show that all compounds have significant effect in comparison with positive control (diazepam). Some of the compounds containing isoxasol moiety and phenyl ring on their structures were more effective than nifedipine. Conclusions. Structure activity relationship study showed that increasing lipophilicity causes an increase of the potency of compounds which is probably due to their ability to pass blood– brain barrier or to more drug receptor interaction.
Temporal lobe epilepsy and hypermotor seizures M. Elisak, J. Amlerova, H. Krijtova, M. Tomasek, P. Marusic, Department of Neurology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Objective. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) are typically associated with frontal lobe epilepsy; however, this seizure type has been observed also in some of temporal lobe epilepsy patients. The aim of our study was determine clinical findings of this type of epilepsy. Methods. Patients with HMS recorded during preoperative video-EEG monitoring were selected from a series of 161 adults who underwent temporal lobe resection for refractory epilepsy. Demographic, electroclinical and imaging data, pathological findings and seizure outcome were analyzed. Results. Eleven patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. In this group males prevailed (7/4); mean age of epilepsy onset was 9 years and electroclinically all patients had temporal lobe epilepsy from non-dominant side. Language dominance was assessed by Wada test or fMRI. Hypermotor semiology was constantly present as a part of all seizures only in four cases; typical temporal signs in seizure semiology were observed in eight cases. Lateralizing semiological signs were found in nine patients. Neuropsychological testing revealed frontal and temporal dysfunctions, bilateral (5 patients) or lateralized (2 patients). Three patients showed diffuse cognitive impairment. Histopathology revealed focal cortical dysplasia in all our cases,
S. Harrisona, H. Crossa,b, W. Harknessa, F. Vargha-Khadema,b, aGreat Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK, bUniversity College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK Objective. The aims of this study were to (i) determine the effects of childhood-onset focal epilepsy on educational performance, and (ii) identify which epilepsy-related factors influence the child's academic attainments. Methods. From 1999 to 2009, a group of children (N= 390) with focal epilepsy aged 5 to 16 years had neuropsychological investigations at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Variables related to cognitive and educational performance were obtained from case notes: frequency and duration of seizures, age of seizure onset, aetiology and hemispheric side of seizure focus inducing structural abnormality, and number of antiepileptic medications. Neuropsychological protocols included tests of intelligence, memory, and academic attainments. Results. Between 38% (word reading) and 47% (reading comprehension) of children with focal epilepsy had significantly impaired (i.e. standard score b 79; standard population mean score = 100; sd, 15) levels of academic attainment relative to the population mean (word reading= 84.75; spelling= 84.84, numerical operations= 82.40, reading comprehension = 80.56), and performed below levels predicted by Full Scale IQ. Reading comprehension was significantly lower than all other academic attainments. Children above age 11 showed academic standards 4 years below chronological age, whilst those below age 11 lagged behind by approximately one year. The only predictors of academic performance were Full Scale IQ and older age at test, reflecting longer duration of epilepsy, with these factors accounting for 66% of the variance. None of the epilepsyrelated variables including hemispheric locus predicted academic performance once IQ was controlled for. The presence of impaired memory forecasted deficits in reading comprehension. Conclusions. These findings highlight the vulnerability of academic attainments in children with focal epilepsy and call for evaluation of intellectual and memory status when planning educational support. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.04.096
Anti-seizure effectivity of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with subtherapeutic anticonvulsant doses V. Kistsen, V. Evstigneev, Neurology and Neurosurgery Dept., Belarusian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Minsk, Belarus Objective. The purpose of our study is to assess the effectiveness of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an adjunctive treatment for epilepsy patients. Methods. Eight patients (two men and six women, mean age 35.4 ± 2.9 years) who take subtherapeutic doses of anticonvulsants (AED) were studied. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with 1 Hz frequency and 20% of maximal magnetic induction (near 0.5 T) intensity was performed during ten consecutive days with a round coil at the