ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTED
AT THE TWELFTH JANUARY
OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL
BACILLI. James K. Alexander, Robert D. Leachman, Edwin M. Ory and Ellard M. Yow. * Dept. of Medicine, Baylor Univ. College of Medicine, Ben Taub. Infectious Disease Laboratory and Cardiopulmonary Laboratory, Jefferson Davis Hospital, Houston, Texas.
Clinical and physiological observations have indicated distinct differences between patients with pneumococcal pneumonia and gramnegative bacillary pneumonias. This study was designed to correlate cardiopulmonary function with bacteriological, radiological and clinical findings in patients with pneumonia of differing etiology. Arterial blood studies were carried out in thirty-two patients, with observations on pulmonary ventilation, gas mixing, lung volumes and, in some instances, pulmonary vascular hemodynamics. Patients with pneumococcal lobar pneumonia demonstrated mild hypoxemia and a tendency toward respiratory alkalosis. When radiographic and physical signs of pneumonia were present, respiratory alkalosis persisted, even after symptoms and fever had disappeared. Pulmonary blood flow was elevated, but pulmonary arterial blood pressures were normal, Residual volumes were slightly elevated, but seven minute nitrogen “wash out” values were normal. In contrast, patients with gram-negative bacillary pneumonias presented with severe hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis with extremely high arterial PC02 values in some instances. Residual volume was elevated, with defective intrapulmonary gas mixing and spirographic “air-trapping” in a single patient studied. These findings suggest that the anoxia of pneumococcal pneumonia is due chiefly to failure to oxygenate blood perfusing exudatefilled alveoli, whereas in gram-negative bacillary * Throughout these abstracts asterisk designates member of the Southern Society for Clinical Research.
25, 1958 pneumonia bronchiolar obstruction interfering with alveolar ventilation is the major physiological change. TEMPORAL
0. J. Andy, R. McC. Chinn, P. Bonn and M. Allen. Jackson Dept. of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Behavior, Univ. of Missississpi Medical Center, Jackson, Miss. ALTERATIONS.
In a series of more than forty cats, blood pressure and electroencephalographic recordings were simultaneously made during seizures induced by electrically stimulating the amygdala and surrounding structures. Recordings were made on a Sanborn and Grass electroencephalograph, respectively. An electrical 30 cps.7 1 m. second square wave was employed. Over 90 per cent of the experiments were made in the awake and unanesthetized animal. In general, stimulation of the amygdala and immediately surrounding structures elicited a definite fall in blood pressure. The change ranged from 5 to 45 mm. Hg, in most instances occurring immediately after onset of the stimulation. The fall in blood pressure variously occurred during the (1) first few seconds of the seizure, (2) middle of the seizure, (3) its termination, (4) or following its termination. Occasionally a drop in blood pressure occurred at the onset of the discharge and returned to normal, with subsequent drop after its termination. The longer and apparently more extensive discharges were associated with the least degree of drop. This apparent paradox was explained by observations made on the hippocampal system after discharges which had a tendency to elevate the blood pressure. Blood pressure responses collectively graphed on twelve representative frontal sections through the amygdaloid and hippocampal regions revealed a greater tendency for blood pressure depression in the anterior central medial structures. 110