Journal of Pediatric Surgery 50 (2015) 1–4
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History of the JPS 50th Anniversary Issue
The Journal of Pediatric Surgery—Celebrates Its 50th Anniversary
The January 2015 issue begins the 50th anniversary volume of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery, marking a milestone for the Journal. Although the heritage of pediatric surgery followed the teaching of Ladd and Gross at the Boston Children's Hospital in the late 1930s and 1940s, the modern development of the specialty began in earnest following WWII. Recognition of the specialty was slow in coming, and in the 1950s and 1960s fewer than a dozen programs were available to train young physicians interested in children's surgery in the United States. A few organizations sponsored presentations by children's surgeons at their annual scientiﬁc meetings, but publication of articles concerning childhood surgery were relatively sparse. In 1962, Dr. Lawrence Pickett, then Chairman of the Section on Surgery of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), noted that it was difﬁcult to publish papers presented at meetings accepted in adult surgical or pediatric journals . Dr. Stephen L. Gans, a member of the Publications Committee of the AAP-Surgery Section, attempted to expedite publication of manuscripts presented at the meeting (Fig. 1). Finding a journal to publish these papers proved difﬁcult, since there were no journals published in English dedicated to the ﬂedgling ﬁeld of Pediatric Surgery. Dr. Gans was convinced that a journal devoted solely to pediatric surgery was needed. Numerous efforts to ﬁnd a publisher failed because pediatric surgery was considered such a small specialty. There was insufﬁcient demand for the journal. In addition, publishers were hesitant to develop a journal that had no relationship with a major pediatric surgical organization or society. The AAP–Surgical Section was a component section within the American Academy of Pediatrics and was not an independent surgical society. Despite many obstacles, Dr. Gans was persistent and tried to recruit leaders in the ﬁeld to serve as prospective members of an editorial board for a journal that did not yet exist. In July 1964 at the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons (BAPS) meeting in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Dr. Gans continued to pursue the concept of developing a specialty journal and acquired additional national and international support . On November 15, 1964, Dr. Gans met with Mr. Henry Stratton of Grune and Stratton Publishers in Seattle, WA, and convinced him to publish the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Dr. C. Everett Koop, a respected leader in the ﬁeld and Surgeon-in-Chief of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia at the time, was selected as the ﬁrst Editor-in-Chief (Fig. 2). Dr. Koop noted, “In 1965, perhaps the single greatest event took place that enhanced the future of pediatric surgery—the beginning of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery” . Dr. Gans was appointed Associate Editor, Professor Peter Paul Rickham of Liverpool, UK, served as Associate Editor for Great Britain, and Professor Keijiro Suruga of Tokyo, Japan, was named Associate Editor for Asia (Fig. 3A and B). The Associate Editors and Editorial Consultant Board came from various places in the world. In 1965, Drs. Koop and Gans persuaded the BAPS and the AAP– Surgery Section to establish a relationship with the new journal to 0022-3468/© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
publish the transactions of their annual meetings. The Journal was to be published 6 times per year. In the ﬁrst issue published in February 1966, Professor I.S. Ravdin, Chair of Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania and a Regent and Past-President of the American College of Surgeons, wrote the lead editorial recognizing the progress of the ﬁeld and the need to publish a Journal devoted to Pediatric Surgery in the English language . The timing of the initiation of the Journal was important, as English was commonly accepted as the language of choice for most international scientiﬁc symposia and congresses. It was clear that the time had come for children's surgeons to have their own journal dedicated to the specialty of pediatric surgery. The Journal was an immediate success. The number of subscribers rapidly increased, and the number of manuscripts submitted for publication was far in excess of the designated pages available to publish them. In 1971, the newly formed American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) selected the Journal of Pediatric Surgery as its ofﬁcial publication. Dr. Robert E. Gross, the ﬁrst President of APSA and one of the fathers of Pediatric Surgery in the US, wrote, “I think the Journal of Pediatric Surgery has done more to advance children's surgery, not only here but around the world, above anything else in the last couple of decades”  (Fig. 4). The Journal of Pediatric Surgery promoted recognition of the ﬁeld worldwide and gave the specialty additional credibility. It was noted as one of a number of supporting factors in the decision by the American Board of Surgery to issue a Certiﬁcate of Special Competence in Pediatric Surgery in 1973. Once Board status was available, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee (RRC) for Surgery became responsible for accrediting pediatric surgery resident training programs. One of the many criteria used to evaluate accredited training programs was the academic productivity of the faculty and residents and whether their work was published in a peer reviewed journal representing their specialty. The Journal of Pediatric Surgery fulﬁlled this need. In 1976, Dr. Koop resigned his post as the Editor-in-Chief, having served 11 years in that position. He subsequently would serve as the Surgeon-General of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and focused on health care policy issues until his death in 2013. Dr. Gans was selected as the new Editor-in Chief of the Journal. He was an innovative editor and strongly emphasized the peer review process . The Journal was one of the ﬁrst periodicals to employ an abstract and use index words to assist computer information retrieval. An International Abstracts section was added to provide the Journal readership with information concerning children's surgical articles published elsewhere. In 1979, the Canadian Association of Pediatric surgeons (CAPS) agreed to publish the transactions of its annual scientiﬁc meeting in the Journal. That same year, Professor Michele Carcassone of Marseille, France, was selected the Editor for Europe.
History of the JPS 50th Anniversary Issue / Journal of Pediatric Surgery 50 (2015) 1-4
Fig. 1. Dr. Stephen L. Gans—Chair, Publications Committee, Surgical Section–AAP 1962. Dr. Gans was the innovator of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Dr Gans served as the 2nd Editor-in-Chief from 1977 to 1994.
In June 1986, Drs. Gans and Jay Grosfeld, then an Associate Editor, met with Mr. Thomas Mackey, representing Grune and Stratton Publishers in Orlando, FL, to discuss the future of the Journal—then its 20th year of publication. They negotiated an agreement to publish the journal monthly. Finally, the Journal had come of age and gained the respect of the publishing world and achieved its place among the other more mature monthly surgical periodicals. In 1988, Professor Daniel G. Young of Glasgow became the Editor for the British Isles and Ireland. That same year the Paciﬁc Association of Pediatric Surgeons (PAPS) became the ﬁfth surgical society to develop a relationship with the Journal serving as the organization's ofﬁcial publication. This expansion into the east further emphasized the international nature of the journal. In 1990 Professor Jan Molenaar of Rotterdam, became the Editor for Europe, and in 1992 Professor Takeshi Miyano of Tokyo replaced Professor Suruga as the Editor for Asia. In 1992, a sister periodical was developed: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery—a quarterly publication that would serve as a valuable bridge between the journal and the various
Fig. 2. C. Everett Koop. MD—the ﬁrst Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery (1966–1977).
Fig. 3. A. (left) Professor Peter Paul Rickham, Liverpool, UK—ﬁrst Associate Editor for Great Britain. B. Professor Keijiro Suruga, Tokyo, Japan—the ﬁrst appointed Editor for Asia.
textbooks in the ﬁeld. Each issue of Seminars contained numerous articles concerning a single topic of importance that provided detailed information in great depth. Drs. Gans and Grosfeld served as the founding editors of the Seminars. On August 1, 1994, after a valiant battle with bladder cancer, Dr. Stephen L. Gans passed away at age 74 years. He had served as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal for 18 years. Dr. Gans also pioneered rigid airway endoscopy and minimally invasive “peritoneoscopy” in infants and children in the 1970's, the latter as a prelude to the current common use of laparoscopic surgery . Dr. Jay L. Grosfeld of Indianapolis, succeeded Dr. Gans as the third Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery and Editor of the Seminars (Fig. 5). The Journal ofﬁce was moved from Los Angeles to Indianapolis. Over the next few years, the Journal experienced several managerial changes reﬂective of acquisitions and mergers that affected the publishing world. That included W.B. Saunders, Columbia Broadcasting System, Brace-Jovanovich Inc., C.V. Mosby, ChurchillLivingston, and eventually Reed-Elsevier became and still is the parent
Fig. 4. A hand written note to Dr. Gans from Dr. Robert E, Gross – the ﬁrst President of APSA – concerning the importance of the Journal to the ﬁeld of Pediatric Surgery (made available from the personal ﬁle of Dr. and Mrs. (Elizabeth) Gans).
History of the JPS 50th Anniversary Issue / Journal of Pediatric Surgery 50 (2015) 1-4
Fig. 5. Professor Jay L. Grosfeld, Indianapolis—The Third Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Pediatric Surgery (1994–present), Founding Editor, Seminars in Pediatric Surgery (1992–present).
company. These changes were relatively seamless for the Journal which thrived despite corporate changes. This was made possible by a group of highly professional and supportive publishing associates assigned to the Journal during the past 20 years, including Joan Blumberg and Livia Berardi of Philadelphia, and Andrew Berin, Patricia Hogan, and Allan Ross in New York. In 2002, Professor Juan Tovar of Madrid became the Editor for Europe, and in 2005, Mr. Victor E. Boston of Belfast was selected as Editor for the British Isles and Ireland. Drs. John Schullinger and Steven Stylianos serve as Section Editors of the International Abstract Section, and Professor Geoff Blair of Vancouver, BC, is the editor of the Section on Pediatric Surgical Images. Dr. John Waldhausen of Seattle assists with the Journal's Continuing Medical Education program (JPSCME), which allows subscribers to obtain CME-credit for selected articles published in the Journal . The Editor-in-Chief (Dr. Grosfeld) represents the Journal of Pediatric Surgery in the Surgical Journal Editors Group (SJEG) whose membership is comprised of editors from most of the major surgical journals. The SJEG meets annually and develops important consensus statements regarding common publication problems affecting most surgical journals including for example, duplicate and fraudulent submissions, authorship responsibility, ethical matters, required institutional review for animal and human research, guidelines for prospective randomized studies, and submissions dealing with studies supported by the pharmaceutical industry and technological corporations. Consensus statements concerning these important issues agreed to by the surgical editors are published simultaneously in a speciﬁc journal issue by the participating surgical Journals [6,7]. In 2001, the Journal transitioned to electronic publishing and developed its own web site (www.jpedsurg.org), with search and linking features to citation resources, a variety of useful databases, and access to many other journals of interest produced by the publishers. Subscribers to the journal had online access to full text journal articles and the availability of online only e-publications to facilitate earlier publication of articles. In 2007, the Journal initiated electronic submission and review of manuscripts using the Elsevier electronic editorial system.(http://ees. elsevier.com/jpedsurg/). This provided an enhanced database for the journal editorial board and manuscript reviewers. The electronic system
improved handling of manuscripts, enhanced communications, expedited and improved the efﬁciency of the review process, and obviated most mailing costs for authors, reviewers, and editorial management . In general, electronic submission provided prospective authors a simple, efﬁcient, and less costly method of submitting their work to the Journal. The journal has achieved a balance of high quality clinical and scientiﬁc publications that provide contemporary content for the subscribers. The implementation of guidelines for reporting clinical research has aided in the preparation of clinical articles and improved the quality of the content of the journal. This effort was accomplished with the aid of Dr. R. Lawrence Moss of Columbus, OH, an Editorial Consultant for the journal [9–11]. The addition of a standard conﬂict of interest statement and requirement of institutional Ethics Committee approval of submissions has been implemented. Establishing levels of evidence for clinical research submissions is a work in progress. In 2008 Professor Mark Davenport of London, UK replaced Victor Boston as Editor for the UK and Ireland. To maintain that role as the leading periodical in the ﬁeld and continue to improve the quality of the content, the journal decided to increase space available within its pages for high impact submissions and to concentrate resources to focus on original clinical and scientiﬁc research articles of outstanding merit and important review articles. Therefore, as of December 31, 2012, the Journal stopped accepting case report submissions. Recognizing the need to provide access for case report submissions in pediatric surgery for our subscribers and other prospective authors, Elsevier established an on-line sister journal to the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. The Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports is an online only, peer-reviewed, open access journal that concentrates exclusively on case reports . The open access concept provides free access to all users and requires authors to pay a nominal article processing fee only if their article gets accepted for publication. The new Journal was launched January 1, 2013, and has its own dedicated website (www.jpscasereports.com) and Science Direct platform (www.sciencedirect.com). Published content is posted on PubMedCentral (PMC). Dr. Steven Stylianos is the Editor-in-Chief of JPSCaseReports. In 2013, the Journal implemented use of Cross-Check and iThenticate into its electronic manuscript review process to identify potential duplicate submissions and instances of plagiarism. Seminars, which started as a quarterly periodical, began publishing six issues per year. The Journal and Seminars have their own APPs and can easily be accessed on mobile devices. There is now a video attachment link available for manuscripts submitted to the Journal which is particularly useful for those papers submitted as Operative techniques. In 2014, after many years of service to the Journal, Professor Juan Tovar stepped down as the Editor for Europe and has been replaced by Professor Mikko Pakarinen of Helsinki. The ability to publish new and contemporary information in the ﬁeld presented at the annual meetings of ﬁve major pediatric surgical societies that publish their transactions in the journal signiﬁcantly enhances its content. The Journal values its long standing relationship with APSA, BAPS, CAPS, PAPS, and the Surgical Section of the AAP and supports and sponsors special Lectures at some of the meetings. The careful peer review process that has been the hallmark of the Journal's success, is made possible by an outstanding group of loyal, knowledgeable, and efﬁcient associate editors, editorial consultants, and valued external reviewers. The correspondence section of the Journal provides an additional source of peer review in the form of letters to the editor. Much progress has been made in the past 50 years. As we celebrate the anniversary of the 50th volume of the Journal, we should be thankful to our colleagues that preceded us and grateful that they had the foresight to develop this special resource for our profession. The Journal of Pediatric Surgery will continue to strive to improve and maintain its position as the major source of new clinical and investigative information in the ﬁeld.
History of the JPS 50th Anniversary Issue / Journal of Pediatric Surgery 50 (2015) 1-4
Jay L. Grosfeld Riley Children's Hospital 705 Riley Hospital Drive-Suite 2500 Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA Tel.: +1 317 274 5716; fax: +1 317 274 5777 E-mail address: [email protected]
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.12.002 References  Grosfeld JL. Journal of Pediatric Surgery: historical review of the ﬁrst 42 years 1966–2008. In: Carachi R, Young DG, Buyukunal C, editors. A history of surgical paediatrics. London: World Scientiﬁc Publishers; 2009. p. 651–67.  Ravdin IS. A new journal. J Pediatr Surg 1966;1:1.
 Gans SL. Recognition in peer review. J Pediatr Surg 1993;28:121–2.  Grosfeld JL. 30th Anniversary issue: Journal of Pediatric Surgery 1966–1996. J Pediatr Surg 1996;31:1–2.  Waldhausen JH, Grosfeld JL. Journal-based continuing medical education for the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. J Pediatr Surg 2010;45(6):1079.  Grosfeld JL, for the SJEG. Duplicate and fraudulent submission of manuscripts. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:835–6.  Surgical Journal Editors Group. Scientiﬁc data from clinical trials: investigator's responsibilities and rights. J Pediatr Surg 2002;37.  Grosfeld JL. The Journal of Pediatric Surgery enters the age of electronic submission. J Pediatr Surg 2007;42:757.  Moss RL. The Consort statement: progress in clinical research in pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:1739–42.  Moss RL, Grosfeld JL. A new standard for reporting clinical research in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. J Pediatr Surg 2006;41:4–6.  Wynne KE, Simpson BJ, Berman L, et al. Results of a longitudinal study of rigorous manuscript submission guidelines designed to improve the quality of clinical research reporting in a peer-reviewed surgical journal. J Pediatr Surg 2011;46:131–7.  Grosfeld JL. A change in direction. J Pediatr Surg 2012;47:1973–4.