The nutritional value of native palatable legume and non-legume species in the Overberg renosterveld

The nutritional value of native palatable legume and non-legume species in the Overberg renosterveld

334 Abstracts studies will be presented to underscore the integrated approach employed to enhance soybean yield and yield stability under drought. ...

50KB Sizes 51 Downloads 180 Views

334

Abstracts

studies will be presented to underscore the integrated approach employed to enhance soybean yield and yield stability under drought.

doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.052

Phosphoproteomic and transcriptomic analysis of maize and Xerophyta viscosa under dehydration stress H. Gabier, J.M. Farrant, M.S. Rafudeen Plant stress Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Cell biology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa E-mail address: [email protected] (H. Gabier) The aim of this study is to analyse the maize and Xerophyta viscosa phosphoproteome and transcriptome in response to dehydration stress. Xerophyta. viscosa is an indigenous desiccation tolerant plant whose genetic elements are currently being used to improve the drought tolerance of crop plants. The understanding of how the signalling pathways in these two-plant species are regulated in response to dehydration may provide us with information on key similarities and differences in their response to water loss and ways to specifically improve the response of maize to abiotic stress. The rationale behind this study is that a phosphoproteomic as well as a transcriptomic approach allows identification of important phosphoproteins that underlie signalling networks, such as kinases and phosphatases, in response to dehydration. An in silico approach will be used to identify putative phosphoproteins from maize and X. viscosa respectively and obtain the corresponding gene sequences for subsequent gene expression studies in response to dehydration using real-time quantitative PCR. In tandem with the dehydration treatment, the phosphoproteome profile will be examined using enrichment strategies such as IMAC or identified using phopsho-stains.

doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.053

The nutritional value of native palatable legume and non-legume species in the Overberg renosterveld L.H. Gallanta, S.B.M. Chimphangob, I. Samuelsa, J.S. Boatwrighta a Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa b Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa E-mail address: [email protected] (L.H. Gallant) The Overberg region is a wheat and a livestock producing area in an area characterised by renosterveld vegetation. It has been reported that productivity of large areas of rangeland was declining due to, among other factors, grazing-out of palatable species from the vegetation. However, information on the plant growth and biological pasture characteristics of these species is not available in literature. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize palatable species in the rangelands of the Overberg for high pasture quality characteristics including concentration of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and other chemical elements. Soil and leaf samples of plant species from three families (Fabaceae, Poacea and Asteraceae) were collected from nine farms across the Overberg region for chemical analysis. The

concentration of nutrients in the soil and chemicals in the leaves varied with farms, plant species and chemical type. Based on NDF and crude protein data, Themeda triandra, a Poacea with NDF and crude protein in the range, respectively, 63.4-69.5% and 2.9-4.7%, showed characteristics of high palatability and nutritive value to livestock across farms. This was followed by Aspalathus nigra, a Fabaceae, with NDF values of 58-64% and CP of 4.9-8.0%. Together with data on morphological characteristics and seed availability, high palatable species will be recommended for plant growth studies. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.054

Enhancing plant resistance to biotic stresses W. Gassmann Division of Plant Sciences, C.S. Bond Life Sciences Center, and Interdisciplinary Plant Group, University of Missouri, Columbia MO 65211-7310, USA E-mail address: [email protected] Biotic stresses such as insect pests and pathogenic microbes have a major negative impact on agricultural productivity. Harnessing innate capacities of plants to resist biotic stresses in order to provide sustainable solutions requires a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms of plant resistance. Our work focuses on the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity to bacterial pathogens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant immunity needs to be tightly controlled to enable normal plant growth, because constitutively activated defense responses are detrimental to the host. How plants achieve this balance is not fully understood. Using a genetic approach we identified the adaptor protein SRFR1 that negatively regulates immune signaling triggered by bacterial pathogens. Surprisingly, we found that srfr1 mutants are also more resistant to chewing insects. SRFR1 encodes a pioneer tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein conserved between plants and animals. The SRFR1 TPR domain has significant sequence similarity to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ssn6 and Caenorhabditis elegans OGT (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase) proteins, which function as transcriptional repressors. A functional subpool of SRFR1 localizes to the nucleus, where it interacts with members of the TCP transcription factor family. TCP transcription factors have been described as mainly regulating developmental processes. We therefore propose that nuclear SRFR1 functions in a transcriptional repressor complex that balances plant biotic stress resistance and development. We are currently studying how SRFR1 shapes the composition of stress response protein complexes and how this leads to integration with transcriptional responses to multiple stresses. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.055

Phytochemical analysis and biological screening of grasses used in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) for medicinal purposes F.C. Gebashe, A.O. Aremu, J.F. Finnie, J. Van Staden Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa E-mail address: [email protected] (F.C. Gebashe) Eleven grass species were identified as being used for medicinal purposes in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. These include