Unhydrolyzed Vegetable Sucrose Polyester in Broiler Diets1

Unhydrolyzed Vegetable Sucrose Polyester in Broiler Diets1

Research Notes Unhydrolyzed Vegetable Sucrose Polyester in Broiler Diets1 B. L. Damron,2 S. K. Williams, and A. R. Eldred Department of Animal Science...

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Research Notes Unhydrolyzed Vegetable Sucrose Polyester in Broiler Diets1 B. L. Damron,2 S. K. Williams, and A. R. Eldred Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110910, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0910 feed conversion, or litter moisture. In Experiment 2, average body weights were significantly greater than control for groups that received 0.5, 2.0, or 2.5% UVSP. However, the degree of shank yellowness as measured with a Minolta Chroma-meter was consistently and significantly reduced by 0.5% or more UVSP. Although xanthophyll levels were intentionally lowered somewhat to improve sensitivity (7.9 and 9.6 mg/kg for starter and finished feeds, respectively), it is obvious that the utilization of xanthophyll was reduced somewhat by UVSP. Additional pigment titration trials could provide valuable information about the levels required to overcome this effect.

(Key words: broiler, vegetable sucrose polyester, pigmentation) 2001 Poultry Science 80:1506–1508

INTRODUCTION Vegetable sucrose polyester results from a mixture of hexa-, hepta-, and octa-esters of sucrose formed by longchain fatty acids from vegetable oils such as soybean and cottonseed. It has the organoleptic and thermal properties of regular fats but is not hydrolyzed by gastric and pancreatic lipases and is not absorbed by mammals or poultry. Unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester (UVSP) is of interest because of the possibility of it entering poultry feeds through bakery product meals. Packelmann (1996) indicated that UVSP was known to cause diarrhea, cramping, and other side effects in some people. Incidences of soft stool were also reported from a long-term study with beagle dogs by Miller et al. (1991). The manufacturer of UVSP has agreed that the product can interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins so the snack foods containing it are vitamin-fortified to offset that problem. Packelmann (1996) has also found that people eating three small polyester-continuing snacks per week could expect at least a 10% drop in blood carotenoid concentration. Of course, this finding

2001 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Received for publication January 17, 2001. Accepted for publication June 15, 2001. 1 This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and a grant from Fats and Proteins Research Foundation, Inc., R. R. 2 Box 298, Bloomington, IL 61704 and approved for publication as Journal Series R-07923. 2 To whom correspondence should be addressed: [email protected] ufl.edu.

is of concern to the poultry industry because it could translate to problems with xanthopyhll utilization and skin pigmentation. Understandably, most of the research to date concerns human safety and application for this product. However, Wei et al. (1984) conducted a 2-wk trial with broiler chicks fed 5% sucrose fatty acid esters containing high or low levels of monoesters. Chicks that received 75% monoesters had weight gains reduced by 70%, poor feathering, and excreted reddish-brown droppings. Birds that received 20% monoesters performed similarly to controls. Waldroup and Adams (1995) conducted three broiler trials in which hydrolyzed spent olestra was compared to corn oil and a feed-grade hydrolyzed animal-vegetable fat blend. Results indicated that use of the hydrolyzed polyester as the sole source of supplemental fat often reduced body weight gain and impaired feed utilization (reductions of 10 and 7%, respectively, in one 21-d broiler study). However, when it was used as a component of a [ended fat product typical to industry practice, there was little if any adverse effect on performance. The authors concluded that as long as the blend of fats containing the hydrolyzed product carried a suitable fatty acid ratio, it should be an acceptable source of supplemental energy for broiler diets. Kersey and Waldroup (2000) reported additional broiler work in which olestra-containing residual from Abbreviation Key: UVSP = unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester.

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ABSTRACT Duplicate 42-d broiler studies were conducted in pens with litter on the floor, beginning with 1d-old chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery. Seven replicate pens, each starting with 12 male and 12 female chicks, received each dietary treatment in a randomizedblock design. Dietary treatments comprised 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5% unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester (UVSP) added to the starting and finishing diets at the expense of filler. In both studies, up to 2.5% UVSP did not have a significant negative effect on body weights, daily feed intake,

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RESEARCH NOTE TABLE 1. Basal diet composition, Experiments 1 and 2 Starter (%) Ingredient Yellow corn Soybean meal (48.5%) Ground limestone Mono-dicalcium phosphate (18.7% P; 21.5% Ca) Trace mineral mix1 Vitamin mix2 Salt DL-methionine Corn oil Coban 603 Variable4

46.30 39.06 1.32

56.42 31.23 1.39

1.75 0.28 0.28 0.46 0.19 7.78 0.08 2.50

1.26 0.28 0.28 0.34 0.08 6.14 0.08 2.50

23.00 1.00 0.70 0.90 0.53 1.28 0.32 0.20 3,197

20.00 0.90 0.59 0.72 0.39 1.07 0.26 0.15 3,197

1 Supplied per kilogram of diet: copper, 11.2 mg; ethoxyquin, 72.8 mg; iodine, 2.2 mg; iron, 67.2 mg; manganese, 100.8 mg; selenium, 0.22 mg; zinc, 89.6 mg. 2 Supplied per kilogram of diet: biotin, 0.22 mg; cholecalciferol, 2,464 IU; choline, 560 mg; ethoxyquin, 73 mg; folic acid, 1.1 mg; niacin, 67 mg; pantothenic acid; 16.8 mg; puridoxine, 5.6 mg; riboflavin, 5.6 mg; thamin, 3.4 mg; vitamin A, 8,960 IU; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; vitamin E, 22.4 IU; and vitamin K, 2.2 mg. 3 Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN 46285. 4 Consisted of unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester and builder’s sand. 5 NRC (1994).

savory snack production was incorporated into a dried bakery product blend at various levels, and up to 15% of the blend was subsequently incorporated into broiler feeds. They found no adverse effects on live performance or carcass characteristics from giving up to 3% olestracontaining savory snack residue in this manner as long as metabolizable energy was adjusted. The study currently being reported was designed to determine if UVSP would have any adverse effects upon broiler performance or pigmentation, if and when it comes into the by-product stream.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Duplicate 42-d broiler studies were conducted in pens (1.68 × 2.36m) with litter on the floor, starting with 1-dold chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery. Seven replicate pens, each starting with 12 male and 12 female chicks, received each dietary treatment in a randomizedblock design. Dietary treatments consisted of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5% UVSP added to the starting and finishing diets (Table 1) at the expense of filler. Each experiment utilized a total of 1,008 birds.

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Minolta Corporation, Ramey, NJ 07446.

In each experiment, the starter diet was given for the first 21 d of age followed by the finisher through 42 d. Feed and water were provided ad libitum using a tube feeder and bell-type waterer. Brooding was accomplished with a shielded infrared heat lamp, suspended above the litter in each pen. At 42 d of age, group body weights were taken by sex within pen, and feed consumption was determined. Feed consumption was corrected for mortality by adding dead bird weights into the calculation. Litter samples were taken from three locations in each pen and blended for moisture determination. Moisture was determined by placing the samples into foil weigh boats, weighing, and moving to a drying oven set at 105 C for 24 h. The samples were then removed, allowed to cool, and weighed again. On the day after body weights were taken, four birds of each sex from each pen were randomly selected for shank pigmentation evaluation using a Minolta Chromameter (Model CR-100).3 The inside area of the left shank just below the hock was measured for color on each bird. Prior to measurement, all visible fecal material and litter were removed using a dry paper towel. The color measurements were recorded using the CIE L, a, b, color system. L quantifies the degree of lightness, a the degree of redness, and b indicates the degree of yellowness. Data were statistically evaluated using computerized analysis of variance procedures (SAS Institute, 1988). Where significant (P ≤ 0.05) treatment effects were identified, computerized Duncan’s multiple-range test procedures (SAS Institute, 1988) were used to express treatment mean differences.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In Experiment 1, 42-d body weights, daily feed intake, feed conversion, and litter moisture were all unaffected by the feeding of up to 2.5% UVSP (Table 2). Performance in Experiment 2 was also not adversely affected by dietary UVSP inclusion (Table 3). However, average body weights for groups that received 0.5, 2.0, or 2.5% UVSP were significantly heavier than controls. These production data agree with the findings of Kersey and Waldroup (2000) in which UVSP-containing dried bakery product supported good body weight and feed conversion. Mortality was not treatment related and is not presented. Evaluation of shank color data revealed no difference in the degree of lightness (L) in either study (Tables 2 and 3). The numerical values were indicative of an overall light yellow color. In Experiment 1, the degree of shank redness (a) values for control and 1.0% UVSP treatments were significantly lower than 0.5 and 2.5% groups. There appeared to be no positive correlation of a values to UVSP concentration. No statistical differences in this parameter were found in the second experiment (Table 3). The effect upon the degree of shank yellowness (b) was significant and consistent across experiments. Increasing UVSP was related to a signifi-

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Calculated composition5 Crude protein Calcium Total phosphorus Methionine and cystine Methionine Lysine Tryptophan Sodium Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)

Finisher (%)

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DAMRON ET AL. TABLE 2. Performance and shank color values of broilers fed various levels of UVSP,1 Experiment 1

UVSP (%)

Average body weight (g)

Feed/day (g)

Feed conversion (g/g)

Litter moisture (%)

Minolta Chroma-Meter color values L2

a3

b4

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Pooled SEM

2,340 2,368 2,341 2,353 2,366 2,346 25.4

94.18 93.65 91.86 93.31 94.99 92.62 1.13

1.71 1.71 1.70 1.71 1.71 1.72 0.01

25.21 27.32 27.09 26.57 28.50 27.50 1.30

71.47 72.57 72.18 72.81 71.53 73.32 0.79

1.52b 3.50a 1.74b 3.11ab 2.52ab 3.58a 0.84

35.37a 32.85b 31.73bc 31.18bc 29.76c 29.94c 0.92

Column means without common letters are significantly different (P < 0.05) according to Duncan’s multiple-range test. Unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester. 2 Degree of lightness (100 = white; 0 = black). 3 Degree of redness (+ = red; − = green/blueness). 4 Degree of yellowness (+ = yellow; closer to 0 = brown). a–c 1

UVSP (%)

Average body weight (g)

Feed/day (g)

Feed conversion (g/g)

Litter moisture (%)

Minolta Chroma-Meter color values L2

a3

b4

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Pooled SEM

2,298b 2,370a 2,315ab 2,316ab 2,374a 2,380a 20.4

91.72 94.35 93.35 94.66 93.69 94.38 1.32

1.67 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.68 1.67 0.01

21.85 21.58 24.83 22.41 21.60 23.17 0.88

71.49 72.42 70.23 71.15 71.26 70.76 0.86

−1.55 −2.02 −1.71 −1.40 −1.44 −1.86 0.36

38.01a 36.28b 33.92c 33.55c 32.03d 32.25d 0.82

Column means without common letters are siginficantly different (P < 0.05) according to Duncan’s multiple-range test. Unhydrolyzed vegetable sucrose polyester. 2 Degree of lightness (100 = white; 0 = black). 3 Degree of redness (+ = red; − = green/blueness). 4 Degree of yellowness (+ = yellow; closer to 0 = brown). a–d 1

cantly lower degree of yellowness, beginning with the 0.5% level of UVSP in both experiments. Although xanthophyll levels were intentionally lowered somewhat to improve sensitivity (7.9 or 9.6 mg/kg for starter and finisher feeds, respectively), it is obvious that the utilization of xanthophyll was reduced by UVSP. Additional pigment titration trials could provide valuable information about the levels required to overcome this effect.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors express their sincere appreciation to Gary Pearl and the Fats and Proteins Foundation, Inc., Bloomington, IL 61704, for sponsoring this work and assisting with the procurement of research materials.

REFERENCES Kersey, J. H., and P. W. Waldroup, 2000. Olestra by-products in feeds: Effects on broiler chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 9:92–97. Miller, K. W., F. E. Wood, S. B. Stuard, and C. L. Alden, 1991. A 20-month olestra feeding study in dogs. Food Chem. Toxicol. 29:427–435. National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Packelmann, L., 1996. Olestra: Too good to be true? Researchers flush out health risks of fake fat. Sci. News 149:61. SAS Institute, 1988. SAS威 Users Guide: Statistics. Version 6 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Waldroup, P. W., and M. H. Adams, 1995. Utilization of hydrolyzed sucrose polyester (olestra) in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 74:957–967. Wei, J. J., C. N. Coon, and B. G. Swanson, 1984. Weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks fed sucrose fatty acid esters. Poultry Sci. 63:378–380.

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TABLE 3. Performance and shank color values of broilers fed various levels of UVSP,1 Experiment 2