Abstracts of c.a.d, literature Architecture, building and planning Blue, H. and Weatherburn, C.P. 75.39 'Contract d o c u m e n t a t i o n of dimensionally co-ordinated buildings using a c o m p u t e r with peripheral graphic display and reproduction units' DMG - Des. Res. J. Vol 8 No 4 ( O c t o b e r December 1974) p p . 2 1 8 - 2 2 1 The system produces drawings, specifications, bills of quantities and schedules of projects d o c u m e n t e d b y the Attstralian Government Architect's Branch. All buildings prepared by this branch, such as schools, offices and hospitals, are required to be dimensionally co-ordinated. Campion, D. 75.40 'Create and access random database system for information handling in the building industry' Buildlnt. Vol 7 (1974) No 1 pp 5 7 - 9 1 Describes a m e t h o d for improving the communication of information in the building industry. The m e t h o d is based on storing information in a computer, so that it is possible to use automatic data procegsing techniques for information retrieval and updating. Campion, D. and Reynolds, T. 75.41 'Computers in architecture in the UK' DMG-Des. Res. Soc. J. Vol 8 No 4 ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r 1974) pp 1 8 2 - 1 9 9 The review describes the current situation of c.a.a.d, projects in the UK in central government, local government, universities and professional organizations. Topics covered include: funding of c.a.a.d., applications, e q u i p m e n t trends, network usage and support work by organizations such as the Design Office Consortium. The m y t h of automatic design should be forgotten and practitioners m u s t concentrate on applying the concept of computer-aided architectural design. Mitchell, W . J . 75.42 'C.a.d. and the architecture student in the USA' DMG-Des. Res. J. Vol 8 No 4 ( O c t o b e r December 1974) pp 2 1 0 - 2 1 7 The author describes the training needs of educational establishments working in c.a.a.d., and the research required. Current research is seen as lying in one o f four problem areas: represcntation and datastructuring, a u t o m a t e d and semi-automated design, design performance simulation and evaluation and man-machine communication. A s u m m a r y is given of the state-ofthe-art in each of these areas. Pavageau, F. 75.43 ' C o m p u t e r application in the architectural field in France' DMG- Des. Res. J. Vol 8 No 4 (October December 1974) pp 2 0 7 - 2 0 9 Very few c o m p u t e r applications in c.a.a.d. are to be found. The Atelier 3 group of architects are investigating user-participation
in apartment layout. Agence Parisienne d'Urbanisme, Paris, are working on data filing for urban planning, cartography, and threedimensional approaches to urban problems. GAMSAU (Groupe d'Etude pour l'Application des Methodes Scientifiques a l'Architecture et l'Urbanisme) is promoting a new approach to architectural problems, and finally, the CSTB group. Nantes, is studying cost evaluation throughout the design process. T o h m a t s u , N. 75.44 'Computers in architecture in Japan' DMG-Des. Res. J. Vol 8 No 4 ( O c t o b e r December 1974) pp 200.-206 There is a strong and growing demand for the development of c.a.a.d, systems. The author mentions the TASAC, ADS and DAC automated drafting systems and also a system called BEISO-O which optimizes materials and costs from a databank. The author describes analytical, generative, evaluative and synthetic systems. Synthetic systems, such as ROCOCO 70 and MANNERI 71, arc interactive systems with a m a n - m a c h i n e dialogue. A useful list of references to c.a.a.d, programs and systems is given. Willis, J. 75.45 ' M i n i m u m cost design of retaining walls by optimization' Transport and Road Res lab., Crowthorne, Berks, UK. Report 1 2 0 V C ( 1 9 7 4 ) An improved set of optimization subroutines using constraint accumulation is described for the m i n i m u m cost design of reinforced concrete retaining walls. A design situation is chosen and the costs of nine different geometric wall sections are compared for a range of heights and ground bearing capacities and two different fill materials behind the wall. Walls of practical dimensions are designed. The use of the optimization subroutines for preparing design charts is demonstrated and a simple m e t h o d is given for helping a designer choose the fill materials to be used behind the wall. The subroutines worked successfully and o p t i m u m designs were found quickly and automatically. It was f o u n d that the combined costs of concrete and steel are fairly insensitive to the concrete/steel unit cost ratio.
Civil and structural engineering Anon 75.46 Computer programs (for stress and thermal analysis) CI.GB Digest Vol 26 No 12 (December 1974) p 14 Balmer, H. et al 75.47 'Elastoplastic and creep analysis with the ASKA program s y s t e m ' Comput Methods in Applied Mechanics and Eng Vol 3 No 1 (January 1974) pp 8 7 - 1 0 4 This paper describes ASKA 111-1, the development of the ASKA 1 system for dealing with non-linearities.
A list of ASKA elements available for use with ASKA 111-1 is given, which includes linear and quadratic displacement elements such as T R I A X 6 and TET 10. The theory behind the system and the organization details of the software are described in detail. User requirements such as data input are given special attention. Cardenas, A. F. and Seeley, R . W . 75.48 'A simple data-structure for interactive graphic design/drafting' Comput. J. Vol 18 No 1 (February 1975) pp 3 0 - 3 3 The SEP (structure edit program) system, written in F O R T R A N 4, is based on a simple two-sequential array structure for use by structural engineers to display and manipulate two- and three-dimensional structures. A simple data-structure offers advantages of easy implementation and speedy retrieval. Features provided by SEP include designing and modifying frame structures on the IBM 2250, rotation, scaling, translation, and mirroring by light-pen. Clough, R . W . 75.49 'Areas of application of the finite element method' Cornput.and Strum. Vol 4 No 1 (January 1974) pp 1 7 - 4 0 This is a 'state-of-the-art' review of finite elements in structural analysis by one of its pioneers. A u t h o r believes that no further research is necessary in the complete static and dynamic, linear and nonlinear rational mechanics field - only specialized applications remain to be exploited. Rand, R. A. and Shen, C . N . 75.50 ' O p t i m u m design of composite shells subject to natural frequency constraints' Comput. and Struct. Vol 3 No 2 (1973) pp 2 4 7 - 6 3 A technique for the o p t i m u m des'ign of a composite shell subject to constraints on its natural frequencies is presented. T h e m e t h o d is based upon the finite element merhod and Rayleigh's principle. Results indicate that the frequency increases with increasing fibre orientation angle, fibre volume fraction, or lamina thickness. Warzee, G. 75.51 'Finite element method and Laplace transform comparative solutions of transient heat conduction problems' Comput. and StrTtct. Vol 4 No 5 (October 1974) pp 9 7 9 - 9 9 1 Willmer, J., Marvin, E. 75.52 'User manual fur I.IFE 1 computer program' Construction Engineering Res. l.ab., Champaign, Illinois, USA 52pp, 8ref, £1.30 (1974) Describes a digital computer program that enables airfield pavement designers and planners to analyze the consequences of available decision alternatives. The program allows different design schemes and strategies for maintaining the proposed pavement systems. Costs of construction and maintenance are estimated, and the various combi-
nations of design schemes and maintenance strategies are ranked by total costs over the design-life of the pavement. Instructions are provided for program operation and input preparation for use with CDC 6000 series c o m p u t e r systems. The program is written in extended FORTRAN.
Electronic, electrical and control engineering Alexander, W., Vandelin, G., 75.53 Mock, D. 'Generalized Smith charts: a new design tool for c.a.d.' Progress Vol 2 No 9 (September 1974) pp 8 - 1 1 ( Fairchild Semiconductor) The Smith chart concept is extended to give the designer a chart to increase his ability to build and analyse RF circuits. These charts contain plots of impedance on the scattering parameter (S-parameter plane). An example of the use of the chart is given to the o p t i m u m design of a transistor amplifier. Chu, Y. 75.54 'Introducing CDL' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 31--33
remote via a teletype or via data sheets or p u n c h e d cards. Marioz, F. and Tectone, O. 75.60 'Hardware description languages in Italy' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 6 0 - 6 1
Marovac, N. 75.61 'A m e t h o d for defining general networks for c.a.d, using interactive c o m p u t e r graphics' Comput. J. Vol 17 No 4 (November 1974) pp 3 3 2 - 3 3 6 The paper describes a network defining language NEDLAN and mechanism. This language is problem-oriented and used to define the structure and all relevant properties of objects in networks and relationships between these objects within the networks. The graphical properties of these objects form part of the properties. The network defining mechanism and language relieve a network designer from any constraints imposed by the software system on the given networks. Mermet, J. 75.62 'tlardware description languages in France' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 5 5 - 5 6
Dervisoglu, B. 75.55 'Hardware description languages in the UK' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 64 - 6 6
Piloty, R. 75.63 'tlardware description languages in the Federal RePublic of Germany' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 5 7 - 5 9
Dietmeyer, D. L 75.56 'Introducing DDL' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 3 4 - 3 8
Siewiorek, D. 75.64 'Introducing ISP' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 3 9 - 4 1
Fisher, D. G., Wilson, R. G. and 75.57 Ago stinis, W. 'Description and applications of a c o m p u t e r program for control system design' Automatica Vol 8 No 6 (November 1972) pp 7 3 7 - 7 4 6 GEMSCOPE, described in this paper, is a computer-assisted design and analysis tool for linear dynamic systems and control systems. It runs on a time-shared IBM 360/67 at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Siewiorek, D. 75.65 'Introducing PMS' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 42- 44
Hill, F.J. 75.58 'Introducing AHPL' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 2 8 - 3 O Hosking, K. H. and Emms, H. 75.59 'The use of the c o m p u t e r program suite O R C H A R D for designing the artwork for double sided printed circuit boards' Tbe Marconi Rev. Vol 37 No 194 (3rd quarter 1974) pp 125-.149 Computer programs are described to help in the m a n u f a c t u r e of double-sided platedthrough-hole p.c.b.'s containing i.e. packages. The major programs place packages and route tracks in seconds. The APPLE package placement program determines in a non-optimum, non-iterative manner, two sets of d.i.I, package positions, namely m i n i m u m vertical congestion counts and m i n i m u m horizontal congestion counts. The track routeing program is called PEAR. The O R C H A R D suite is based on the ICL 4/70 multi-access system and operated
Siouris, G.M. 75.66 'The frequency response of a closed-loop system' Angewandte Informatik No 11 (November 1974) pp 4 7 4 - 4 7 6 A F O R T R A N 4 procedure for c o m p u t i n g the frequency response of a feedback control s y s t e m consisting of a combination of elementary blocks with known transfer functions. Tile operator provides the frequency range for analysis. Sturzu, P. 75.67 'Dial SDATA for c.a.d.' Progress Vol 2 No 6 (June 1974) pp 1 - 4 (Fairchild Semiconductor) Describes a program to help design wideband amplifiers efficiently and quickly. The SDATA program allows access to S parameter information for h.f. devices, stored in the GF. timeshare computer. The SPEEDY program is a fast, frequency domain circuit analysis routine. Ex~unples are given of the design of a low noise amplifier and a hybrid microwave amplifier.
Su, S. Y.H. 75.68 'A survey of c o m p u t e r hardware description languages in the USA' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 4 5 57
Vancher, J. 75.69 'Hardware description languages in Canada' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1 9 7 4 ) pp 5 3 - 5 4 Watanabe, H. and Fujino, K. 75.70 'Hardware description languages in Japan' Comput. Vol 7 No 12 (December 1974) pp 6 2 - 6 3
Mechanical engineering Dicus, J . H . 75.71 ' F O R T R A N program to generate engine inlet flow contour maps and distortion parameters ' NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA TM X-2967 (February 1974) Forster, K. 75.72 'Technically oriented algorithms for unsteady pipe flow'
Comput. Metb. in Applied Meebanics and Eng. Vol 2 No 3 (July/Aug 1973) pp 2 7 9 - 3 0 3 The explicit or marching technique for numeri rally solving the nonlinear hyperbolic equations of one- and two-dimensional nonsteady compressible fluid flow through conduits is examined. Examples presented include flow through ducts with variable cross section, one-dimensional flow with wall friction, flow owing to a moving piston, flow in an open-ended duct, flow through a LaVal nozzle. Glassman, A . J . 75.73 'Computer program for t h e r m o d y n a m i c analysis of an open-cycle multishaft power system with multiple reheat and intercool' NASA Technical Note, NASA TN D.7589 (March 1974) 65 pp The program can be used to analyze power systems with up to five shafts. On each shaft there can be five compressors and five turbines, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included. Turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. A n y fuel consisting entirely of hydrogen and/or carbon can be used. The program is valid for m a x i m u m temperatures up to about 2000 K. Kaufman, R . E . 75.74 'KINSYN phase 11: a h u m a n engineered c o m p u t e r system for kinematic design and a new least-squares synthesis operator' Mecbanism and Macb. Tbeory Vol 8 No 4 (Winter 1973) pp 469--478 An interactive computer system used for designing mechanisms is described. The initial topology of the m e c h a n i s m and the geometrical and kinematic constraints that the mechanism should satisfy are described. The computer generates a ' s t r e t c h - r o t a t i o n operator' whose elements are optimized in order to reduce the least-square deviations between the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the m e c h a n i s m until the best solution is obtained. The designer interacts with the display via a light-pen.
Techniques J arvls, J. F. 'Two simple windowing algorithms'
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN