G e n . Pharmac. Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 4 9 5 ~ r 9 6 , 1997 Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Science Inc. Printed in the U S A .
ISSN 0306-3623/97 $17.00 + .00 PII S0306-3623(96)00475-2 All rights reserved ELSEVIER
Drug prototypes and their exploitation. John Wiley. Chichester. UK. £80
Walter Sneader. 788 pp. 1996.
The tremendous development of the pharmaceutical industry over the last 100 years has been mainly due to the skill and brilliance of pharmacologists and chemists in developing new effective drugs. In many cases their contribution has been unsung and the twists and turns in the synthesis of new and related compounds forgotten. This book systematically deals with the development of drugs from 240 prototypes with chapters on alkaloids; non-alkaloid plant products; low mglecular weight hormones; steroids; peptide hormones; PGs; blood and othgr fluids; growth factors and cytokines; vitamins; nucleic acids; venoms; antibiotics; synthetics with chemotherapeutic activity; synthetics with pharmapcodynamic activity; the role of serendipity. 1200 drugs are presented with their structural formula and an account of their discovery, effectiveness and side effects. There are very useful family trees presenting the groups of drugs and their inter-relationship. The book shows how the inadequacies of many ~Jrug prototypes as therapeutic agents have been overcome by chemically related analogues. This helps to indicate where the probabilities for future development may lie as well as exposing those areas which appear to have been neglected. The book contains fascinating information that puts flesh on the chemical skeletons and gives much needed depth and information on pharmacology. It will give you something to talk about at coffee and lunch. :Buy it!
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Edited by R. G. Cameron, G. Feuer and F. A. de la lglesia. 681 pp. 1996. Springer Verlag. Berlin. DM 530 Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology Vol. 121 The increased use of multi.-drug treatment has lead to a higher probability of adverse effects in different organs or systems. The liver with its major role in the metabolism of drugs consequently receives the largest number of toxic insults. This volume deals with patterns of hepatotoxicity (HT); clinical studies and the role of necrosis in HT; subcellular biochemical and pathological correlates of HT; molecular biology of HT; in vitro models of HT; Cytochrome P450 and HT; mechanisms of drug induced cholestasis; fatty liver and drugs; choline deficiency, a model for the study of HT; immune mechanisms and HT; hepatic enc~phalopathy; liver drug reactions and pregnanacy; pediatric hepatic drug reactions; Reye's syndrome; drug HT in the elderly; effects of liver disease on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics; liver reactions to Tacrine; mechanisms hypertransaminemia; diagnostic tools and clinical pathology; antimicrobial drugs; HT of cardiovascular drugs; analgesic hepatopathy; steroids and other hormones; HT of immunomodulating agents; alcohol induced liver injury; antiepileptic drugs. This information will help correct the balance regarding iatrogenic HT and improve the life of the liver.
Vascular dementia; current concepts. Edited by I. Prohovnik, J. Wade, S. Knezevic, T. Tatemichi and T. Erkinjuntti. 340 pp. 1996. John Wiley. Chichester. UK £65 "Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA and the leading cause of disability. Approximately half a million strokes occur anually in the USA, about one third of patients die acutely and the annual cost to the nation has been estimated at $30 billidn." The book deals with the concept of vascular dementia; differences between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease; experimental approaches; epidemiology; clinico-pathological studies; white matter disease; neuropsychology; functional neuroimaging; structural imaging; cerebral hypoperfusiOn; treatment; nimodipine clinical trial. Drugs such as Hydergine, Nicergo[ine, Co-dergocrine, Pentoxifylline, Vinpocetine, Memantine, Piracetam and Calcium antagonists have been used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia.
Receptors; models for binding, trafficking and signaling. D.A. Lauffenburger and J. J. Linderman. 365 pp. 1993. Oxford University Press. Oxford. PB £22.95 This book first published in 1993 as a hard back is now available in paper back. It was conceived as an interface between chemical engineers/physicists and cell biologists. It deals with fundamentals of receptors/ligand binding (binding models, cooperativity, multiple receptor states, temiary complex formation and receptor aggregation); receptor/ligand trafficking (endocytosis, mathematical models, mechanistic models); physical aspects (probabilistic aspects, diffusion, crosslinking); signal transduction (R-G protein interactions, phospholipase C, receptors as enzymes, adaptation); behavioral responses (cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell migration, mathematical models). Although it would be nice to have a new edition, this PB still has a lot of very useful information and background. Epithelial transport; a guide to methods and experimental analysis. Edited by N. K. Wills, L. Reuss and S. A. Lewis. 355 pp. 1996. Chapman and Hall. London. £55 Epithelial cells (E) form the boundary between the body and the outside world or body fluid compartments. To some extent our understanding of the function of E depends on the methods used. This book deals with E structure and function; E transport proteins; E polarity; E ion transport; E electrophysiology; E impedance; cytoplasmic ion activities; E volume; isolated E membranes; single ion channels; E culture; signalling pathways regulating ion transport; cytoskeleton and E function; future perspective; instumentation; solving simple equivalent circuits. The chapters provide the background information necessary for making the practical measurements.
Molecular biology of parasitic protozoa. Edited by D. F. Smith and M. Parsons. 233 pp. 1996. IRL/Oxford University Press. Oxford. UK. PB £29.50 Although bacteria and viruses cause most illness, the parasitic protozoa cause a lot of disease and distress, ranging from diarrhea to death. This book deals with trypanosome genetics; the three genomes of Plasmodium; Toxoplasma as a model genetic system; kinetoplast DNA, structure and replication; developmental regulation of gene expression in African trypanosomes; transsplicing in trypanosomid protozoa; RNA editing, post transcriptional restructuring of genetic information; biogenesis of specialized organelles, glycosomes and hydrogenosomes; mechanisms of drug resistance in protozoan parasites; glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositols and the surface architecture of parasitic protozoa. The more we know about the parasitic protozoa, the greater the chance of defeating them.
Nucleic acids in chemistry and biology; 2nd edition. Edited by C. M. Blackburn and M. J. Gait. 528 pp. 1996. Oxford University Press. Oxford. PB. £29.95 There have been many developments since the first edition appeared in 1990. The tertiary structure of DNA reflects the sequence dependent structure modulation and includes a section on triplex and other unusual structures. There is a new section on manipulative techniques. The section on synthesis of oligonucleotides analogues and oligoribonucleotides has been extended. There is more information on the latest drugs produced to interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. There is more on DNA recombination; catalytic RNA; enediyne antibiotics; molecules that bind to G-C sequences in the minor groove of DNA; RNA intercalators; protein:nucleic acid interactions. There is a new chapter on physical and biological techniques used in nucleic acids research. The text has been given a two color presentation and there are several full color plates of X ray analysis of protein: nucleic acid structures. A very useful textbook.