Women commercial pilots

Women commercial pilots

1 8 2 - 1 9 3 ; abstr in CIS Abstracts (CIS 76-880). Description of a study to determine the metabolic cost and other physiological responses associa...

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1 8 2 - 1 9 3 ; abstr in CIS Abstracts

(CIS 76-880). Description of a study to determine the metabolic cost and other physiological responses associated with ancillary work in coal mines performed by so-called 'prop mistries' (roof support supervisors who fix props, bars and cogs as they think necessary) and 'prop mazdoors' (unskilled workers helping the former by carrying and sawing timber). The study covered 15 subjects (seven mistries; eight mazdoors) all healthy adults 3 0 - 4 0 years of age. Ambient work temperatures were 2 5 - 2 7 ° C DB and 2 4 - 2 6 ° C WB with air velocity 4 5 - 7 5 m/min in the mine. roadways. Physical characteristics of the subjects under study and results (resting metabolism of workers engaged in timbering: heart rate (beat/min), oxygen uptake (1/min), oral temperature; metabolic cost and other physiological responses: oxygen uptake, energy expenditure (kcal/min), peak heart rate, oral temperature, etc, are given in tabular form. It would appear from the results that, contrary to what was believed previously, the work of the prop mistries is just as heavy as that of the prop mazdoors, both being classified as heavy and very heavy from the viewpoint of work stress, especiatIy the transport of timber in a stooping posture. 8.1.15 (70359)

Wilson, E.P. Women commercial pilots. Revue de Medecine Aeronautique et Spatial¢, 1974, 1 3 . 1 , 4 7 - 4 8 ; abstr in Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Consideration of the fitness of women for work as commercial airline or military pilots. While there is proof that some women can be as competent as men, and respond to advanced training with complete equality of performance, it is felt that, generally, women are temperamentally unsuited to a whole and full life in either military or commercial flying.

Ille Symposium International de Posturographie, Paris, 2 3 - 2 6 September I975. Agressologie, I976, 17A,

Announcements (Reprt No AD-A021

55-59.

836/2GA}.

Two male subjects (height = 174 cm, weight = 66 kg) stood on a force platform and lifted a 5 kg box to heights of I5, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 105, 120 and 135 cm. The centre of mass of the box was 40 cm from the centre of mass of the subject. Each subject lifted 12 times at each condition. Since the study was safety oriented rather than energy oriented, the peak forces or torques for each axis were the criteria rather than the area under the curve. Stage 1(0 to 1-3 s) ends with the grasping of the box; stage 2 (1 "3 to 3"7 s) ends with the box on the shelf; stage 3 (3-7 to 5"0 s) ends with the subject standing vertically. As demonstrated in previous work, the vertical force is the dominant force. The vertical force peaks are greater than object weight primarily due to the effect of the body weight but also due to acceleration. Height of lift did not significantly affect the peak values. In stage 1, peak a ( - 8-7 kg), occurs at 0"6 s and peak b (+ 4"8 kg) occurs at 1-1 s. In stage 2 peak c ( - 4"4 kg), occurs at 1'6 s, peak d (+ 12"7 kg), occurs at 2-2 s and peak e ( - 6-3 kg), occurs at 3"0 s. There is no discernible peak in stage 3. Peak lateral force was 3 kg. Mean peak twist torque was 0"17 kg-m. Mean peak somersault torque was 4"40 kg-m. Mean peak cartwheel torque was 6"25 kg-m.

Data from 13 body measar~emeats and four strength tests on 152 female flight attendants are reported. The stewardesses are taller ( x bar = 165"8 cm) and lighter (x bar = 54"6 kg) than the correspondin~ abe in the civilian population. ~ strength tests are reported as the average plateau, maximum force, and pound-second force for a two-handed push (110 cm from floor), leg lift (25 cm from floor), back lift (50 cm from floor), and arm lift (100 cm from floor). Tl~ere are no comparable data in the literature; these data can provide a general gt~ideline as to the maximum strength capabilities of the on-line airline stewardess.

Kassab, S.J., and Drury, C.G.

Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Paris. Electro-optical systems. May 1975, 142 pp; abstr in Scientific and Technical

Aerospace Report (Report No AGARD-LS-76). Military applications of opticelectronics are reported. The design and application of display devices including helmet mounted devices are discussed. The design and limitations of cockpit and display devices are described for human factors engineering.

King, L.E.

8.1.17 (70363)

8.1.19 (70367)

Konz, S., and Desal, G.

Raynolds, I-I.M., and Allgood, M.A.

Lifting forces for nine lifting heights.

Functional strength of commercial

T76-3092, 1975, 16 pp; abstr in

R and D Abstracts.

8.1.20 (70378)

8.1.21 (70397)

The effects of working height on a manual lifting task. In terna tional Journal of Production Research, May 1976, 1 4 . 3 , 3 8 1 - 3 8 6 .

This book sets out the principles upon which heavy loads should be handled so as to ensure safety and to minimize fatigue, strain and possible injury.

Health and Safety Executive, London. Lifting and carrying. TRC Report No

Visual displays

8.1.18 (70365)

Confusion exists in the manual lifting and handling literature between the effects of working height at the bottom and top of a lift. This study varied both heights and measured the maximum weight lifted for male and female subjects using a non-compact box. Both bottom and top height affected weight lifted. The actual weights lifted and the relationships between male and female performance were consistent with the literature. It was found that the maximum voluntary strength at the top of the lift was not a good prediction of performance, suggesting that skill as well as strength define performance limits for this task. The implications for performance models are discussed.

8.1.16 (70362)

amine stewardesses. Nov 1975, I5 pp; abstr i a Go vernmen t Reports

Recognition of symbol and word traffic signs. Journal of Safe ty Research, Jun 1975, 7.2, 8 0 - 8 4 ; abstr in Psychological Abstracts. Used as a 35 mm slide tachistoscope projector to present 26 19-31 year olds with both symbol and word traffic signs, one at a time for an exposure duration of either a/3 or 1/18 s. Each presentation was followed by either a 5 or l 0 s delay period or a 10 s interference period, after which the subject was asked to match the test sign to an identical sign, which was 1 of 10 shown on a following slide. Accuracy of the match was recorded. During the 10 s interference, the subject was required to perform a simple reading task. Ten subjects were tested at the 1/3 s and 16 at the 1As s viewing time. All subjects, both drivers and non-drivers, were familiar with the word signing system, but only one had been previously exposed to the symbol system. Results show that symbol signs were more accurately recognized

Applied Ergonomics March 1977

47